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Effect of xylazine, isoxsuprine and lildocaine on Doppler sonographic uterine and umbilical blood flow measurements in cows during the last month of pregnancy


Bleul, U; Waldvogel, D (2014). Effect of xylazine, isoxsuprine and lildocaine on Doppler sonographic uterine and umbilical blood flow measurements in cows during the last month of pregnancy. Theriogenology, 81(7):993-1003.

Abstract

The maternal portion of the bovine placenta receives blood mainly from the uterine arteries (AUT) and the fetal portion from the umbilical arteries (AUM). Placental perfusion is crucial for fetal development and undergoes adaptive changes during pregnancy according to the fetal requirements. One goal of this study was to investigate changes in Doppler sonographic measurements of blood vessels that supply blood to the placenta in cows during the last 4 weeks of pregnancy. Another goal was to examine how these measurements are affected by three drugs commonly used in cows at the time of parturition. Nine cows underwent Doppler sonographic examination of the AUT ipsilateral and contralateral to the pregnant horn and one AUM three times per week during the last 4 weeks of gestation. This was followed by the randomized administration of one of the three following experimental drugs per day: isoxsuprine (200 mg/cow, iv), xylazine (2 mg/100 kg, iv), and lidocaine for epidural anesthesia (100 mg/cow). Doppler sonographic examination was repeated 30 minutes after medication. Maternal pulse rate increased during the study period (P < 0.001), and the diameter of the contralateral AUT was smaller in the last week before birth than in the two preceding weeks. The resistance index (RI) of the ipsilateral AUT was smaller in the last week than in the first 2 weeks of the study period. Uterine blood flow volume increased after isoxsuprine by 5% and after epidural anesthesia by 6% (both P ≤ 0.05) and decreased after xylazine by 10% (P < 0.001). Isoxsuprine was the only drug that elevated the blood flow volume in the AUM (P ≤ 0.05). Xylazine increased the RI of both AUT (both P < 0.001) and significantly reduced maternal and fetal pulse frequencies, whereas isoxsuprine significantly reduced the RI of both AUT and the AUM and increased maternal and fetal pulse frequencies. The results reported that Doppler sonographic measurements of uterine and AUM change little in the last month of pregnancy in the cow. Isoxsuprine and epidural anesthesia with lidocaine have the potential to improve uterine perfusion.

The maternal portion of the bovine placenta receives blood mainly from the uterine arteries (AUT) and the fetal portion from the umbilical arteries (AUM). Placental perfusion is crucial for fetal development and undergoes adaptive changes during pregnancy according to the fetal requirements. One goal of this study was to investigate changes in Doppler sonographic measurements of blood vessels that supply blood to the placenta in cows during the last 4 weeks of pregnancy. Another goal was to examine how these measurements are affected by three drugs commonly used in cows at the time of parturition. Nine cows underwent Doppler sonographic examination of the AUT ipsilateral and contralateral to the pregnant horn and one AUM three times per week during the last 4 weeks of gestation. This was followed by the randomized administration of one of the three following experimental drugs per day: isoxsuprine (200 mg/cow, iv), xylazine (2 mg/100 kg, iv), and lidocaine for epidural anesthesia (100 mg/cow). Doppler sonographic examination was repeated 30 minutes after medication. Maternal pulse rate increased during the study period (P < 0.001), and the diameter of the contralateral AUT was smaller in the last week before birth than in the two preceding weeks. The resistance index (RI) of the ipsilateral AUT was smaller in the last week than in the first 2 weeks of the study period. Uterine blood flow volume increased after isoxsuprine by 5% and after epidural anesthesia by 6% (both P ≤ 0.05) and decreased after xylazine by 10% (P < 0.001). Isoxsuprine was the only drug that elevated the blood flow volume in the AUM (P ≤ 0.05). Xylazine increased the RI of both AUT (both P < 0.001) and significantly reduced maternal and fetal pulse frequencies, whereas isoxsuprine significantly reduced the RI of both AUT and the AUM and increased maternal and fetal pulse frequencies. The results reported that Doppler sonographic measurements of uterine and AUM change little in the last month of pregnancy in the cow. Isoxsuprine and epidural anesthesia with lidocaine have the potential to improve uterine perfusion.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinary Clinic > Department of Farm Animals
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
630 Agriculture
Language:English
Date:2014
Deposited On:30 Dec 2014 16:18
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 18:40
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0093-691X
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2014.01.031
PubMed ID:24581585
Permanent URL: https://doi.org/10.5167/uzh-102886

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