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Distinct regulation of tonsillar immune response in virus infection


Jartti, T; Palomares, O; Waris, M; Tastan, O; Nieminen, R; Puhakka, T; Rückert, B; Aab, A; Vuorinen, T; Allander, T; Vahlberg, T; Ruuskanen, O; Akdis, M; Akdis, C A (2014). Distinct regulation of tonsillar immune response in virus infection. Allergy, 69(5):658-667.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The relationships between tonsillar immune responses, and viral infection and allergy are incompletely known.
OBJECTIVE: To study intratonsillar/nasopharyngeal virus detections and in vivo expressions of T-cell- and innate immune response-specific cytokines, transcription factors, and type I/II/III interferons in human tonsils.
METHODS: Palatine tonsil samples were obtained from 143 elective tonsillectomy patients. Adenovirus, bocavirus-1, coronavirus, enteroviruses, influenza virus, metapneumovirus, parainfluenza virus, rhinovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus were detected using PCR. The mRNA expression levels of IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17, IL-28, IL-29, IL-37, TGF-β, FOXP3, GATA3, RORC2, and Tbet were directly analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR.
RESULTS: Fifty percentage of subjects reported allergy, 59% had ≥1 nasopharyngeal viruses, and 24% had ≥1 intratonsillar viruses. Tonsillar virus detection showed a strong negative association with age; especially rhinovirus or parainfluenza virus detection showed positive association with IFN-γ and Tbet expressions. IL-37 expression was positively associated with atopic dermatitis, whereas IFN-α, IL-13, IL-28, and Tbet expressions were negatively associated with allergic diseases. Network analyses demonstrated strongly polarized clusters of immune regulatory (IL-10, IL-17, TGF-β, FOXP3, GATA3, RORC2, Tbet) and antiviral (IFN-α, IFN-β, IL-28, IL-29) genes. These two clusters became more distinctive in the presence of viral infection or allergy. A negative correlation between antiviral cytokines and IL-10, IL-17, IL-37, FOXP3, and RORC2 was observed only in the presence of viruses, and interestingly, IL-13 strongly correlated with antiviral cytokines.
CONCLUSIONS: Tonsillar cytokine expression is closely related to existing viral infections, age, and allergic illnesses and shows distinct clusters between antiviral and immune regulatory genes.

BACKGROUND: The relationships between tonsillar immune responses, and viral infection and allergy are incompletely known.
OBJECTIVE: To study intratonsillar/nasopharyngeal virus detections and in vivo expressions of T-cell- and innate immune response-specific cytokines, transcription factors, and type I/II/III interferons in human tonsils.
METHODS: Palatine tonsil samples were obtained from 143 elective tonsillectomy patients. Adenovirus, bocavirus-1, coronavirus, enteroviruses, influenza virus, metapneumovirus, parainfluenza virus, rhinovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus were detected using PCR. The mRNA expression levels of IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17, IL-28, IL-29, IL-37, TGF-β, FOXP3, GATA3, RORC2, and Tbet were directly analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR.
RESULTS: Fifty percentage of subjects reported allergy, 59% had ≥1 nasopharyngeal viruses, and 24% had ≥1 intratonsillar viruses. Tonsillar virus detection showed a strong negative association with age; especially rhinovirus or parainfluenza virus detection showed positive association with IFN-γ and Tbet expressions. IL-37 expression was positively associated with atopic dermatitis, whereas IFN-α, IL-13, IL-28, and Tbet expressions were negatively associated with allergic diseases. Network analyses demonstrated strongly polarized clusters of immune regulatory (IL-10, IL-17, TGF-β, FOXP3, GATA3, RORC2, Tbet) and antiviral (IFN-α, IFN-β, IL-28, IL-29) genes. These two clusters became more distinctive in the presence of viral infection or allergy. A negative correlation between antiviral cytokines and IL-10, IL-17, IL-37, FOXP3, and RORC2 was observed only in the presence of viruses, and interestingly, IL-13 strongly correlated with antiviral cytokines.
CONCLUSIONS: Tonsillar cytokine expression is closely related to existing viral infections, age, and allergic illnesses and shows distinct clusters between antiviral and immune regulatory genes.

Citations

4 citations in Web of Science®
4 citations in Scopus®
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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:May 2014
Deposited On:13 Jan 2015 15:42
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 18:43
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
ISSN:0105-4538
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/all.12396
PubMed ID:24684577

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