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Measurement and modeling of microlenses fabricated on single-photon avalanche diode arrays for fill factor recovery


Pavia, Juan Mata; Wolf, Martin; Charbon, Edoardo (2014). Measurement and modeling of microlenses fabricated on single-photon avalanche diode arrays for fill factor recovery. Optics Express, 22(4):4202-4213.

Abstract

Single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) imagers typically have a relatively low fill factor, i.e. a low proportion of the pixel's surface is light sensitive, due to in-pixel circuitry. We present a microlens array fabricated on a 128×128 single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) imager to enhance its sensitivity. The benefits and limitations of these light concentrators are studied for low light imaging applications. We present a new simulation software that can be used to simulate microlenses' performance under different conditions and a new non-destructive contact-less method to estimate the height of the microlenses. Results of experiments and simulations are in good agreement, indicating that a gain >10 can be achieved for this particular sensor.

Single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) imagers typically have a relatively low fill factor, i.e. a low proportion of the pixel's surface is light sensitive, due to in-pixel circuitry. We present a microlens array fabricated on a 128×128 single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) imager to enhance its sensitivity. The benefits and limitations of these light concentrators are studied for low light imaging applications. We present a new simulation software that can be used to simulate microlenses' performance under different conditions and a new non-destructive contact-less method to estimate the height of the microlenses. Results of experiments and simulations are in good agreement, indicating that a gain >10 can be achieved for this particular sensor.

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19 citations in Web of Science®
21 citations in Scopus®
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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Neonatology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:24 February 2014
Deposited On:09 Feb 2015 15:47
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 18:52
Publisher:Optical Society of America
ISSN:1094-4087
Additional Information:This paper was published in Optics Express and is made available as an electronic reprint with the permission of OSA. The paper can be found at the following URL on the OSA website: http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.22.004202. Systematic or multiple reproduction or distribution to multiple locations via electronic or other means is prohibited and is subject to penalties under law.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1364/OE.22.004202
PubMed ID:24663744
Permanent URL: https://doi.org/10.5167/uzh-105750

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