Impairments of the central motor system can either be congenital (e. g. cerebral palsy) or acquired (e. g. traumatic brain injury, stroke). These lesions are the most frequent morbidities necessitating neuro-rehabilitative measures in childhood. Robot-assisted rehabilitation in combination with virtual reality can complement conventional therapies and provide a task-specific training, with a high number of repetitions over a prolonged time period. The advantage of virtual reality is that it can provide a real time feedback about the patient's performance. Furthermore, challenging virtual scenarios especially motivate young patients to continue with otherwise monotonous exercises. Preliminary findings indicate that robot-assisted training in children with central motor impairment could be beneficial, but conclusive evidence about its efficacy is still missing.