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Changes in the expression of genes related to neuroinflammation over the course of sporadic Alzheimer's disease progression: CX3CL1, TREM2, and PPARγ


Strobel, S; Grünblatt, E; Riederer, P; Heinsen, H; Arzberger, T; Al-Sarraj, S; Troakes, C; Ferrer, I; Monoranu, Camelia Maria (2015). Changes in the expression of genes related to neuroinflammation over the course of sporadic Alzheimer's disease progression: CX3CL1, TREM2, and PPARγ. Journal of Neural Transmission, 122(7):1069-1076.

Abstract

The role of neuroinflammation in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases has become more evident in recent years. Research on the etiology and pathogenesis of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) has focused on the role of chemokines such as CX3CL1, on the triggering receptors expressed by myeloid cells (TREMs), especially TREM2, and on the transcription factor/nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). Here we analyzed the expression levels of CX3CL1, TREM2, and PPARγ in tissue homogenates from human brain regions that have different degrees of vulnerability to neuropathological AD-related changes to obtain insights into the pathogenesis and progression of AD. We found that CX3CL1 and TREM2, two genes related to neuroinflammation, are more highly expressed in brain regions with pronounced vulnerability to AD-related changes, such as the hippocampus, and that the expression levels reflect the course of the disease, whereas regions with low vulnerability to AD, seemed generally less affected by neuroinflammation. Furthermore, our results support previous findings of significantly higher CX3CL1 plasma levels in patients with mild to moderate AD than in patients with severe AD. Thus, CX3CL1 should be considered as promising additional marker for the early diagnosis of AD and underlines once more, the involvement of the neuroinflammation in the pathogenesis of this neurodegenerative disease.

Abstract

The role of neuroinflammation in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases has become more evident in recent years. Research on the etiology and pathogenesis of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) has focused on the role of chemokines such as CX3CL1, on the triggering receptors expressed by myeloid cells (TREMs), especially TREM2, and on the transcription factor/nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). Here we analyzed the expression levels of CX3CL1, TREM2, and PPARγ in tissue homogenates from human brain regions that have different degrees of vulnerability to neuropathological AD-related changes to obtain insights into the pathogenesis and progression of AD. We found that CX3CL1 and TREM2, two genes related to neuroinflammation, are more highly expressed in brain regions with pronounced vulnerability to AD-related changes, such as the hippocampus, and that the expression levels reflect the course of the disease, whereas regions with low vulnerability to AD, seemed generally less affected by neuroinflammation. Furthermore, our results support previous findings of significantly higher CX3CL1 plasma levels in patients with mild to moderate AD than in patients with severe AD. Thus, CX3CL1 should be considered as promising additional marker for the early diagnosis of AD and underlines once more, the involvement of the neuroinflammation in the pathogenesis of this neurodegenerative disease.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Center for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:18 January 2015
Deposited On:05 Feb 2015 08:16
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 18:57
Publisher:Springer
ISSN:0300-9564
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00702-015-1369-5
PubMed ID:25596843

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