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Protein Z in normal pregnancy


Quack Loetscher, Katharina C; Stiller, Ruth; Roos, Malgorzata; Zimmermann, Roland (2005). Protein Z in normal pregnancy. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 93(4):706-709.

Abstract

Changes in the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems during pregnancy lead to a higher risk of thromboembolism. These changes include the increase of many clotting factors, as well as a significant fall in activity of fibrinolytic proteins, such as protein C. Protein Z is a vitamin-K-dependent plasma glycoprotein and inhibits the activation of factor X by serving as a cofactor to a plasma proteinase inhibitor. Protein Z deficiency has recently been reported in women with unexplained early fetal losses, and antibodies to protein Z can contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the range of protein Z in normal pregnancies at different gestational weeks in a cross-sectional and a longitudinal setting. In the longitudinal study we found a 20% increase (p=0.006) of protein Z from first trimester to delivery and a 30% decrease (p<0.0001) 6 to 12 weeks after delivery. In the cross-sectional study these findings were reproducible. In summary, our data show a progressive increase in protein Z levels with gestational age in normal pregnancies and a return to normal levels around 6 to 12 weeks postpartum. The normal increase of protein Z during pregnancy may balance the increase of clotting factors to protect pregnant women from thrombosis.

Changes in the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems during pregnancy lead to a higher risk of thromboembolism. These changes include the increase of many clotting factors, as well as a significant fall in activity of fibrinolytic proteins, such as protein C. Protein Z is a vitamin-K-dependent plasma glycoprotein and inhibits the activation of factor X by serving as a cofactor to a plasma proteinase inhibitor. Protein Z deficiency has recently been reported in women with unexplained early fetal losses, and antibodies to protein Z can contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the range of protein Z in normal pregnancies at different gestational weeks in a cross-sectional and a longitudinal setting. In the longitudinal study we found a 20% increase (p=0.006) of protein Z from first trimester to delivery and a 30% decrease (p<0.0001) 6 to 12 weeks after delivery. In the cross-sectional study these findings were reproducible. In summary, our data show a progressive increase in protein Z levels with gestational age in normal pregnancies and a return to normal levels around 6 to 12 weeks postpartum. The normal increase of protein Z during pregnancy may balance the increase of clotting factors to protect pregnant women from thrombosis.

Citations

14 citations in Web of Science®
10 citations in Scopus®
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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute (EBPI)
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:April 2005
Deposited On:11 Mar 2015 16:52
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 19:10
Publisher:Schattauer
ISSN:0340-6245
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1267/THRO05040706
PubMed ID:15841316

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