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ISFM Consensus Guidelines on the Practical Management of Diabetes Mellitus in Cats


Sparkes, A H; Cannon, M; Church, D; Fleeman, L; Harvey, A; Hoenig, M; Peterson, M E; Reusch, C E; Taylor, S; Rosenberg, D (2015). ISFM Consensus Guidelines on the Practical Management of Diabetes Mellitus in Cats. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, 17(3):235-250.

Abstract

PRACTICAL RELEVANCE Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common endocrinopathy in cats that appears to be increasing in prevalence. The prognosis for affected cats can be good when the disease is well managed, but clinical management presents challenges, both for the veterinary team and for the owner. These ISFM Guidelines have been developed by an independent, international expert panel of clinicians and academics to provide practical advice on the management of routine (uncomplicated) diabetic cats. CLINICAL CHALLENGES Although the diagnosis of diabetes is usually straightforward, optimal management can be challenging. Clinical goals should be to limit or eliminate clinical signs of the disease using a treatment regimen suitable for the owner, and to avoid insulin-induced hypoglycaemia or other complications. Optimising bodyweight, feeding an appropriate diet and using a longer acting insulin preparation (eg, protamine zinc insulin, insulin glargine or insulin detemir) are all factors that are likely to result in improved glycaemic control in the majority of cats. There is also some evidence that improved glycaemic control and reversal of glucose toxicity may promote the chances of diabetic remission. Owner considerations and owner involvement are an important aspect of management. Provided adequate support is given, and owners are able to take an active role in monitoring blood glucose concentrations in the home environment, glycaemic control may be improved. Monitoring of other parameters is also vitally important in assessing the response to insulin. Insulin adjustments should always be made cautiously and not too frequently - unless hypoglycaemia is encountered. EVIDENCE BASE The Panel has produced these Guidelines after careful review of the existing literature and of the quality of the published studies. They represent a consensus view on practical management of cats with DM based on available clinical data and experience. However, in many areas, substantial data are lacking and there is a need for better studies in the future to help inform and refine recommendations for the clinical management of this common disease.

PRACTICAL RELEVANCE Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common endocrinopathy in cats that appears to be increasing in prevalence. The prognosis for affected cats can be good when the disease is well managed, but clinical management presents challenges, both for the veterinary team and for the owner. These ISFM Guidelines have been developed by an independent, international expert panel of clinicians and academics to provide practical advice on the management of routine (uncomplicated) diabetic cats. CLINICAL CHALLENGES Although the diagnosis of diabetes is usually straightforward, optimal management can be challenging. Clinical goals should be to limit or eliminate clinical signs of the disease using a treatment regimen suitable for the owner, and to avoid insulin-induced hypoglycaemia or other complications. Optimising bodyweight, feeding an appropriate diet and using a longer acting insulin preparation (eg, protamine zinc insulin, insulin glargine or insulin detemir) are all factors that are likely to result in improved glycaemic control in the majority of cats. There is also some evidence that improved glycaemic control and reversal of glucose toxicity may promote the chances of diabetic remission. Owner considerations and owner involvement are an important aspect of management. Provided adequate support is given, and owners are able to take an active role in monitoring blood glucose concentrations in the home environment, glycaemic control may be improved. Monitoring of other parameters is also vitally important in assessing the response to insulin. Insulin adjustments should always be made cautiously and not too frequently - unless hypoglycaemia is encountered. EVIDENCE BASE The Panel has produced these Guidelines after careful review of the existing literature and of the quality of the published studies. They represent a consensus view on practical management of cats with DM based on available clinical data and experience. However, in many areas, substantial data are lacking and there is a need for better studies in the future to help inform and refine recommendations for the clinical management of this common disease.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinary Clinic > Department of Small Animals
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
630 Agriculture
Language:English
Date:March 2015
Deposited On:09 Apr 2015 05:54
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 19:12
Publisher:Sage Publications Ltd.
ISSN:1098-612X
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1177/1098612X15571880
PubMed ID:25701862
Permanent URL: https://doi.org/10.5167/uzh-110226

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