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In vivo profiling reveals immunomodulatory effects of sorafenib and dacarbazine on melanoma


Urosevic-Maiwald, Mirjana; Barysch, Marjam J; Cheng, Phil F; Karpova, Maria B; Steinert, Hans; Okoniewski, Michal J; Dummer, Reinhard (2015). In vivo profiling reveals immunomodulatory effects of sorafenib and dacarbazine on melanoma. OncoImmunology, 4(2):e988458.

Abstract

Sorafenib is a multi-kinase inhibitor used alone or in combination with dacarbazine to treat metastasized melanoma. Our study investigated the relationship between metabolic response assessed by PET-CT and global transcriptome changes during sorafenib and dacarbazine therapy in patients with advanced melanoma. We conducted an open-label, investigator-initiated study that enrolled 13 sorafenib-naïve Stage IV melanoma patients, whose metastases were accessible for repeated biopsies. Treatment regimen included orally administered sorafenib and intravenous dacarbazine. Biopsies of skin or superficial lymph node metastases were taken before treatment (baseline), during sorafenib and after dacarbazine therapy and used for transcriptional profiling and validation experiments. Serum samples were evaluated for cytokine production. Metabolic response to therapy was observed in 45.5% of patients. The study drugs were well tolerated. We observed a clear upregulation of interferon (IFN)-stimulated immune response genes in profiled metastases. The IFNγ-induced gene signature seemed to be enhanced after addition of dacarbazine to sorafenib. Serum IFNγ also increased during therapy, particularly after addition of dacarbazine. Induction of IFNγ stimulated genes correlating with increased serum IFNγ was predictive of better clinical outcome and responders who had significantly higher serum IFNγ levels lived longer. Our data reveal in situ changes in melanoma metastases during treatment with sorafenib and dacarbazine and suggest an additional mechanism of action through immunomodulation.

Abstract

Sorafenib is a multi-kinase inhibitor used alone or in combination with dacarbazine to treat metastasized melanoma. Our study investigated the relationship between metabolic response assessed by PET-CT and global transcriptome changes during sorafenib and dacarbazine therapy in patients with advanced melanoma. We conducted an open-label, investigator-initiated study that enrolled 13 sorafenib-naïve Stage IV melanoma patients, whose metastases were accessible for repeated biopsies. Treatment regimen included orally administered sorafenib and intravenous dacarbazine. Biopsies of skin or superficial lymph node metastases were taken before treatment (baseline), during sorafenib and after dacarbazine therapy and used for transcriptional profiling and validation experiments. Serum samples were evaluated for cytokine production. Metabolic response to therapy was observed in 45.5% of patients. The study drugs were well tolerated. We observed a clear upregulation of interferon (IFN)-stimulated immune response genes in profiled metastases. The IFNγ-induced gene signature seemed to be enhanced after addition of dacarbazine to sorafenib. Serum IFNγ also increased during therapy, particularly after addition of dacarbazine. Induction of IFNγ stimulated genes correlating with increased serum IFNγ was predictive of better clinical outcome and responders who had significantly higher serum IFNγ levels lived longer. Our data reveal in situ changes in melanoma metastases during treatment with sorafenib and dacarbazine and suggest an additional mechanism of action through immunomodulation.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Dermatology Clinic
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Nuclear Medicine
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:February 2015
Deposited On:21 Jul 2015 13:26
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 19:18
Publisher:Landes Bioscience
ISSN:2162-4011
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.4161/2162402X.2014.988458
PubMed ID:25949886

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