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Conversion of tyrosine phenol-lyase to dicarboxylic amino acid beta-lyase, an enzyme not found in nature


Mouratou, B; Kasper, P; Gehring, H; Christen, P (1999). Conversion of tyrosine phenol-lyase to dicarboxylic amino acid beta-lyase, an enzyme not found in nature. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 274(3):1320-1325.

Abstract

Tyrosine phenol-lyase (TPL), which catalyzes the beta-elimination reaction of L-tyrosine, and aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT), which catalyzes the reversible transfer of an amino group from dicarboxylic amino acids to oxo acids, both belong to the alpha-family of vitamin B6-dependent enzymes. To switch the substrate specificity of TPL from L-tyrosine to dicarboxylic amino acids, two amino acid residues of AspAT, thought to be important for the recognition of dicarboxylic substrates, were grafted into the active site of TPL. Homology modeling and molecular dynamics identified Val-283 in TPL to match Arg-292 in AspAT, which binds the distal carboxylate group of substrates and is conserved among all known AspATs. Arg-100 in TPL was found to correspond to Thr-109 in AspAT, which interacts with the phosphate group of the coenzyme. The double mutation R100T/V283R of TPL increased the beta-elimination activity toward dicarboxylic amino acids at least 10(4)-fold. Dicarboxylic amino acids (L-aspartate, L-glutamate, and L-2-aminoadipate) were degraded to pyruvate, ammonia, and the respective monocarboxylic acids, e.g. formate in the case of L-aspartate. The activity toward L-aspartate (kcat = 0.21 s-1) was two times higher than that toward L-tyrosine. beta-Elimination and transamination as a minor side reaction (kcat = 0.001 s-1) were the only reactions observed. Thus, TPL R100T/V283R accepts dicarboxylic amino acids as substrates without significant change in its reaction specificity. Dicarboxylic amino acid beta-lyase is an enzyme not found in nature.

Tyrosine phenol-lyase (TPL), which catalyzes the beta-elimination reaction of L-tyrosine, and aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT), which catalyzes the reversible transfer of an amino group from dicarboxylic amino acids to oxo acids, both belong to the alpha-family of vitamin B6-dependent enzymes. To switch the substrate specificity of TPL from L-tyrosine to dicarboxylic amino acids, two amino acid residues of AspAT, thought to be important for the recognition of dicarboxylic substrates, were grafted into the active site of TPL. Homology modeling and molecular dynamics identified Val-283 in TPL to match Arg-292 in AspAT, which binds the distal carboxylate group of substrates and is conserved among all known AspATs. Arg-100 in TPL was found to correspond to Thr-109 in AspAT, which interacts with the phosphate group of the coenzyme. The double mutation R100T/V283R of TPL increased the beta-elimination activity toward dicarboxylic amino acids at least 10(4)-fold. Dicarboxylic amino acids (L-aspartate, L-glutamate, and L-2-aminoadipate) were degraded to pyruvate, ammonia, and the respective monocarboxylic acids, e.g. formate in the case of L-aspartate. The activity toward L-aspartate (kcat = 0.21 s-1) was two times higher than that toward L-tyrosine. beta-Elimination and transamination as a minor side reaction (kcat = 0.001 s-1) were the only reactions observed. Thus, TPL R100T/V283R accepts dicarboxylic amino acids as substrates without significant change in its reaction specificity. Dicarboxylic amino acid beta-lyase is an enzyme not found in nature.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Biochemistry
07 Faculty of Science > Department of Biochemistry
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
Language:English
Date:15 January 1999
Deposited On:11 Feb 2008 12:20
Last Modified:26 Aug 2016 07:32
Publisher:American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
ISSN:0021-9258
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:10.1074/jbc.274.3.1320
PubMed ID:9880502
Permanent URL: http://doi.org/10.5167/uzh-1126

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