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A comparison of DSM-5 and DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder in traumatized refugees


Schnyder, Ulrich; Müller, Julia; Morina, Naser; Schick, Matthis; Bryant, Richard A; Nickerson, Angela (2015). A comparison of DSM-5 and DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder in traumatized refugees. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 28(4):267-274.

Abstract

The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence rate and factor structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) based on the diagnostic criteria of the fourth and fifth editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, , ) in traumatized refugees. There were 134 adult treatment-seeking, severely and multiply traumatized patients from various refugee backgrounds were assessed in their mother tongue using a computerized set of questionnaires consisting of a trauma list, the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale, and the new PTSD items that had been suggested by the DSM-5 Task Force of the American Psychiatric Association. Using DSM-IV, 60.4% of participants met diagnostic criteria for PTSD; using DSM-5, only 49.3% fulfilled all criteria (p < .001). Confirmatory factor analysis of DSM-IV and DSM-5 items showed good and comparable model fits. Furthermore, classification functions in the DSM-5 were satisfactory. The new Cluster D symptoms showed relatively high sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive power, and negative predictive power. The DSM-5 symptom structure appears to be applicable to traumatized refugees. Negative alterations in cognitions and mood may be especially useful for clinicians, not only to determine the extent to which an individual refugee is likely to meet criteria for PTSD, but also in providing targets for clinical intervention.

Abstract

The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence rate and factor structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) based on the diagnostic criteria of the fourth and fifth editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, , ) in traumatized refugees. There were 134 adult treatment-seeking, severely and multiply traumatized patients from various refugee backgrounds were assessed in their mother tongue using a computerized set of questionnaires consisting of a trauma list, the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale, and the new PTSD items that had been suggested by the DSM-5 Task Force of the American Psychiatric Association. Using DSM-IV, 60.4% of participants met diagnostic criteria for PTSD; using DSM-5, only 49.3% fulfilled all criteria (p < .001). Confirmatory factor analysis of DSM-IV and DSM-5 items showed good and comparable model fits. Furthermore, classification functions in the DSM-5 were satisfactory. The new Cluster D symptoms showed relatively high sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive power, and negative predictive power. The DSM-5 symptom structure appears to be applicable to traumatized refugees. Negative alterations in cognitions and mood may be especially useful for clinicians, not only to determine the extent to which an individual refugee is likely to meet criteria for PTSD, but also in providing targets for clinical intervention.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2015
Deposited On:14 Oct 2015 08:50
Last Modified:01 Sep 2016 00:00
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
ISSN:0894-9867
Additional Information:This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: [Schnyder, U., Müller, J., Morina, N., Schick, M., Bryant, R. A. and Nickerson, A. (2015), A Comparison of DSM-5 and DSM-IV Diagnostic Criteria for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Traumatized Refugees. J. Traum. Stress, 28: 267–274. doi: 10.1002/jts.22023], which has been published in final form at [http://doi.org/10.1002/jts.22023]. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.22023
PubMed ID:26194738

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