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Adverse cutaneous drug eruptions: current understanding


Hoetzenecker, W; Nägeli, M; Mehra, E T; Jensen, A N; Saulite, I; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Guenova, E; Cozzio, A; French, L E (2016). Adverse cutaneous drug eruptions: current understanding. Seminars in Immunopathology, 38(1):75-86.

Abstract

Adverse cutaneous drug reactions are recognized as being major health problems worldwide causing considerable costs for health care systems. Most adverse cutaneous drug reactions follow a benign course; however, up to 2 % of all adverse cutaneous drug eruptions are severe and life-threatening. These include acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). Physicians should be aware of specific red flags to rapidly identify these severe cutaneous drug eruptions and initiate appropriate treatment. Besides significant progress in clinical classification and treatment, recent studies have greatly enhanced our understanding in the pathophysiology of adverse cutaneous drug reactions. Genetic susceptibilities to certain drugs have been identified in SJS/TEN patients, viral reactivation in DRESS has been elucidated, and the discovery of tissue resident memory T cells helps to better understand the recurrent site-specific inflammation in patients with fixed drug eruption.

Abstract

Adverse cutaneous drug reactions are recognized as being major health problems worldwide causing considerable costs for health care systems. Most adverse cutaneous drug reactions follow a benign course; however, up to 2 % of all adverse cutaneous drug eruptions are severe and life-threatening. These include acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). Physicians should be aware of specific red flags to rapidly identify these severe cutaneous drug eruptions and initiate appropriate treatment. Besides significant progress in clinical classification and treatment, recent studies have greatly enhanced our understanding in the pathophysiology of adverse cutaneous drug reactions. Genetic susceptibilities to certain drugs have been identified in SJS/TEN patients, viral reactivation in DRESS has been elucidated, and the discovery of tissue resident memory T cells helps to better understand the recurrent site-specific inflammation in patients with fixed drug eruption.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, further contribution
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Dermatology Clinic
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2016
Deposited On:03 Dec 2015 09:08
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 19:35
Publisher:Springer
ISSN:1863-2297
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00281-015-0540-2
PubMed ID:26553194

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