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Call for uniform neuropsychological assessment after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: Swiss recommendations


Zweifel-Zehnder, A E; Stienen, M N; Chicherio, C; Studerus-Germann, A; Bläsi, S; Rossi, S; Gutbrod, K; Schmid, N; Beaud, V; Mondadori, C; Brugger, P; Sacco, L; Müri, R; Hildebrandt, G; Fournier, J Y; Keller, E; Regli, L; Fandino, J; Mariani, L; Raabe, A; Daniel, R T; Reinert, M; Robert, T; Schatlo, B; Bijlenga, P; Schaller, K; Monsch, A U (2015). Call for uniform neuropsychological assessment after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: Swiss recommendations. Acta Neurochirurgica, 157(9):1449-1458.

Abstract

BACKGROUND In a high proportion of patients with favorable outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), neuropsychological deficits, depression, anxiety, and fatigue are responsible for the inability to return to their regular premorbid life and pursue their professional careers. These problems often remain unrecognized, as no recommendations concerning a standardized comprehensive assessment have yet found entry into clinical routines. METHODS To establish a nationwide standard concerning a comprehensive assessment after aSAH, representatives of all neuropsychological and neurosurgical departments of those eight Swiss centers treating acute aSAH have agreed on a common protocol. In addition, a battery of questionnaires and neuropsychological tests was selected, optimally suited to the deficits found most prevalent in aSAH patients that was available in different languages and standardized. RESULTS We propose a baseline inpatient neuropsychological screening using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) between days 14 and 28 after aSAH. In an outpatient setting at 3 and 12 months after bleeding, we recommend a neuropsychological examination, testing all relevant domains including attention, speed of information processing, executive functions, verbal and visual learning/memory, language, visuo-perceptual abilities, and premorbid intelligence. In addition, a detailed assessment capturing anxiety, depression, fatigue, symptoms of frontal lobe affection, and quality of life should be performed. CONCLUSIONS This standardized neuropsychological assessment will lead to a more comprehensive assessment of the patient, facilitate the detection and subsequent treatment of previously unrecognized but relevant impairments, and help to determine the incidence, characteristics, modifiable risk factors, and the clinical course of these impairments after aSAH.The need for clinically applicable skin substitutes continues to be a matter of fact. Hypothetically, a laboratory grown autologous skin analog with near normal architecture might be a suitable approach to yield both satisfactory functional and cosmetic long-term results. In this study, we explored the use of human endothelial cells derived from freshly isolated adipose stromal vascular fraction (SVF) in a three-dimensional (3D) co-culture model of vascularized bio-engineered skin substitute. METHODS The SVF was isolated from human white adipose tissue samples and keratinocytes from human skin biopsies. The SVF, in particular endothelial cells, were characterized using flow cytometry and immuofluorescence analysis. Endothelial and mesenchymal progenitors from the SVF formed blood capillaries after seeding into a 3D collagen type I hydrogel in vitro. Subsequently, human keratinocytes were seeded on the top of those hydrogels to develop a vascularized dermo-epidermal skin substitute. RESULTS Flow cytometric analysis of surface markers of the freshly isolated SVF showed the expression of endothelial markers (CD31, CD34, CD146), mesenchymal/stromal cell-associated markers (CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105), stem cell markers (CD49f, CD117, CD133), and additionally hematopoietic markers (CD14, CD15, CD45). Further analysis of white adipose-derived endothelial cells (watECs) revealed the co-expression of CD31, CD34, CD90, CD105, and partially CD146 on these cells. WatECs were separated from adipose-stromal cells (watASCs) using FACS sorting. WatASCs and watECs cultured separately in a 3D hydrogel for 3 weeks did not form any vascular structures. Only if co-cultured, both cell types aligned to develop a ramified vascular network in vitro with continuous endothelial lumen formation. Transplantation of those 3D-hydrogels onto immuno-incompetent rats resulted in a rapid connection of human capillaries with the host vessels and formation of functional, blood-perfused mosaic human-rat vessels within only 3-4 days. CONCLUSIONS Adipose tissue represents an attractive cell source due to the ease of isolation and abundance of endothelial as well as mesenchymal cell lineages. Adipose-derived SVF cells exhibit the ability to form microvascular structures in vitro and support the accelerated blood perfusion in skin substitutes in vivo when transplanted.

Abstract

BACKGROUND In a high proportion of patients with favorable outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), neuropsychological deficits, depression, anxiety, and fatigue are responsible for the inability to return to their regular premorbid life and pursue their professional careers. These problems often remain unrecognized, as no recommendations concerning a standardized comprehensive assessment have yet found entry into clinical routines. METHODS To establish a nationwide standard concerning a comprehensive assessment after aSAH, representatives of all neuropsychological and neurosurgical departments of those eight Swiss centers treating acute aSAH have agreed on a common protocol. In addition, a battery of questionnaires and neuropsychological tests was selected, optimally suited to the deficits found most prevalent in aSAH patients that was available in different languages and standardized. RESULTS We propose a baseline inpatient neuropsychological screening using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) between days 14 and 28 after aSAH. In an outpatient setting at 3 and 12 months after bleeding, we recommend a neuropsychological examination, testing all relevant domains including attention, speed of information processing, executive functions, verbal and visual learning/memory, language, visuo-perceptual abilities, and premorbid intelligence. In addition, a detailed assessment capturing anxiety, depression, fatigue, symptoms of frontal lobe affection, and quality of life should be performed. CONCLUSIONS This standardized neuropsychological assessment will lead to a more comprehensive assessment of the patient, facilitate the detection and subsequent treatment of previously unrecognized but relevant impairments, and help to determine the incidence, characteristics, modifiable risk factors, and the clinical course of these impairments after aSAH.The need for clinically applicable skin substitutes continues to be a matter of fact. Hypothetically, a laboratory grown autologous skin analog with near normal architecture might be a suitable approach to yield both satisfactory functional and cosmetic long-term results. In this study, we explored the use of human endothelial cells derived from freshly isolated adipose stromal vascular fraction (SVF) in a three-dimensional (3D) co-culture model of vascularized bio-engineered skin substitute. METHODS The SVF was isolated from human white adipose tissue samples and keratinocytes from human skin biopsies. The SVF, in particular endothelial cells, were characterized using flow cytometry and immuofluorescence analysis. Endothelial and mesenchymal progenitors from the SVF formed blood capillaries after seeding into a 3D collagen type I hydrogel in vitro. Subsequently, human keratinocytes were seeded on the top of those hydrogels to develop a vascularized dermo-epidermal skin substitute. RESULTS Flow cytometric analysis of surface markers of the freshly isolated SVF showed the expression of endothelial markers (CD31, CD34, CD146), mesenchymal/stromal cell-associated markers (CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105), stem cell markers (CD49f, CD117, CD133), and additionally hematopoietic markers (CD14, CD15, CD45). Further analysis of white adipose-derived endothelial cells (watECs) revealed the co-expression of CD31, CD34, CD90, CD105, and partially CD146 on these cells. WatECs were separated from adipose-stromal cells (watASCs) using FACS sorting. WatASCs and watECs cultured separately in a 3D hydrogel for 3 weeks did not form any vascular structures. Only if co-cultured, both cell types aligned to develop a ramified vascular network in vitro with continuous endothelial lumen formation. Transplantation of those 3D-hydrogels onto immuno-incompetent rats resulted in a rapid connection of human capillaries with the host vessels and formation of functional, blood-perfused mosaic human-rat vessels within only 3-4 days. CONCLUSIONS Adipose tissue represents an attractive cell source due to the ease of isolation and abundance of endothelial as well as mesenchymal cell lineages. Adipose-derived SVF cells exhibit the ability to form microvascular structures in vitro and support the accelerated blood perfusion in skin substitutes in vivo when transplanted.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Neurology
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Neurosurgery
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:September 2015
Deposited On:03 Dec 2015 09:52
Last Modified:01 Jul 2016 00:00
Publisher:Springer
ISSN:0001-6268
Additional Information:The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00701-015-2480-y
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00701-015-2480-y
PubMed ID:26179382

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