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Immunodeficiency and the risk of cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia 2/3 and cervical cancer: A nested case-control study in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study


Clifford, Gary M; Franceschi, Silvia; Keiser, Olivia; Schöni-Affolter, Franziska; Lise, Mauro; Dehler, Silvia; Levi, Fabio; Mousavi, Mohsen; Bouchardy, Christine; Wolfensberger, Aline; Darling, Katharine E; Staehelin, Cornelia; Bertisch, Barbara; Kuenzli, Esther; Bernasconi, Enos; Pawlita, Michael; Egger, Matthias (2016). Immunodeficiency and the risk of cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia 2/3 and cervical cancer: A nested case-control study in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. International Journal of Cancer, 138(7):1732-1740.

Abstract

HIV-infected women are at increased risk of cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC), but it has been difficult to disentangle the influences of heavy exposure to HPV infection, inadequate screening, and immunodeficiency. A case-control study including 364 CIN2/3 and 20 ICC cases matched to 1,147 controls was nested in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (1985-2013). CIN2/3 risk was significantly associated with low CD4+ cell counts, whether measured as nadir (odds ratio (OR) per 100-cell/μL decrease=1.15, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.22), or at CIN2/3 diagnosis (1.10, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.16). An association was evident even for nadir CD4+ 200-349 versus ≥350 cells/μL (OR=1.57, 95% CI: 1.09, 2.25). After adjustment for nadir CD4+, a protective effect of >2-year cART use was seen against CIN2/3 (OR versus never cART use=0.64, 95% CI: 0.42, 0.98). Despite low study power, similar associations were seen for ICC, notably with nadir CD4+ (OR for 50 versus >350 cells/μL= 11.10, 95% CI: 1.24, 100). HPV16-L1 antibodies were significantly associated with CIN2/3, but HPV16-E6 antibodies were nearly exclusively detected in ICC. In conclusion, worsening immunodeficiency, even at only moderately decreased CD4+ cell counts (200-349 CD4+ cells/μL), is a significant risk factor for CIN2/3 and cervical cancer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

HIV-infected women are at increased risk of cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC), but it has been difficult to disentangle the influences of heavy exposure to HPV infection, inadequate screening, and immunodeficiency. A case-control study including 364 CIN2/3 and 20 ICC cases matched to 1,147 controls was nested in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (1985-2013). CIN2/3 risk was significantly associated with low CD4+ cell counts, whether measured as nadir (odds ratio (OR) per 100-cell/μL decrease=1.15, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.22), or at CIN2/3 diagnosis (1.10, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.16). An association was evident even for nadir CD4+ 200-349 versus ≥350 cells/μL (OR=1.57, 95% CI: 1.09, 2.25). After adjustment for nadir CD4+, a protective effect of >2-year cART use was seen against CIN2/3 (OR versus never cART use=0.64, 95% CI: 0.42, 0.98). Despite low study power, similar associations were seen for ICC, notably with nadir CD4+ (OR for 50 versus >350 cells/μL= 11.10, 95% CI: 1.24, 100). HPV16-L1 antibodies were significantly associated with CIN2/3, but HPV16-E6 antibodies were nearly exclusively detected in ICC. In conclusion, worsening immunodeficiency, even at only moderately decreased CD4+ cell counts (200-349 CD4+ cells/μL), is a significant risk factor for CIN2/3 and cervical cancer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Institute of Surgical Pathology
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Infectious Diseases
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2016
Deposited On:17 Dec 2015 09:13
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 19:39
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
ISSN:0020-7136
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.29913
PubMed ID:26537763

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