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Nephrotic syndrome and thrombotic microangiopathy caused by cobalamin C deficiency


Koenig, Jens C; Rutsch, Frank; Bockmeyer, Clemens; Baumgartner, Matthias; Beck, Bodo B; Kranz, Brigitta; Konrad, Martin (2015). Nephrotic syndrome and thrombotic microangiopathy caused by cobalamin C deficiency. Pediatric Nephrology, 30(7):1203-1206.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Cobalamin C (CblC) defects are inherited autosomal recessive disorders of vitamin B12 metabolism due to mutations in the MMACHC gene. Renal manifestations include thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), acute or chronic renal failure, tubulointerstitial nephritis, and proximal renal tubular acidosis. However, reports about glomerular pathologies are scarce.
CASE REPORT: A 4-year-old boy presented with nephrotic syndrome, arterial hypertension, and chronic anemia but no signs of hemolysis. Renal biopsy showed TMA with ischemic glomerular collapse, foot process effacement, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Elevated serum levels of homocysteine suggested a cobalamin C disorder. This was confirmed by the identification of compound heterozygous mutations in the MMACHC gene. Initial therapy consisted of antihypertensive treatment including angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) leading to blood pressure control and a significant reduction of proteinuria. After a definite diagnosis of CblC deficiency, hydroxocobalamin was introduced. Thereafter, homocysteine levels decreased, anemia resolved, and a further decline of proteinuria with normalization of serum protein levels was noted. Renal function remained stable.
CONCLUSIONS: Although uncommon, the clinical picture of CblC defects may be ruled by nephrotic syndrome mimicking glomerulonephritis, minimal change disease, or primary focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis. Key to a correct diagnosis is elevated serum levels of homocysteine, and a definite diagnosis can be confirmed by genetic testing.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Cobalamin C (CblC) defects are inherited autosomal recessive disorders of vitamin B12 metabolism due to mutations in the MMACHC gene. Renal manifestations include thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), acute or chronic renal failure, tubulointerstitial nephritis, and proximal renal tubular acidosis. However, reports about glomerular pathologies are scarce.
CASE REPORT: A 4-year-old boy presented with nephrotic syndrome, arterial hypertension, and chronic anemia but no signs of hemolysis. Renal biopsy showed TMA with ischemic glomerular collapse, foot process effacement, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Elevated serum levels of homocysteine suggested a cobalamin C disorder. This was confirmed by the identification of compound heterozygous mutations in the MMACHC gene. Initial therapy consisted of antihypertensive treatment including angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) leading to blood pressure control and a significant reduction of proteinuria. After a definite diagnosis of CblC deficiency, hydroxocobalamin was introduced. Thereafter, homocysteine levels decreased, anemia resolved, and a further decline of proteinuria with normalization of serum protein levels was noted. Renal function remained stable.
CONCLUSIONS: Although uncommon, the clinical picture of CblC defects may be ruled by nephrotic syndrome mimicking glomerulonephritis, minimal change disease, or primary focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis. Key to a correct diagnosis is elevated serum levels of homocysteine, and a definite diagnosis can be confirmed by genetic testing.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Children's Hospital Zurich > Medical Clinic
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:July 2015
Deposited On:12 Jan 2016 09:49
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 19:51
Publisher:Springer
ISSN:0931-041X
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00467-015-3110-x
PubMed ID:25894566

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