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Doppler sonographic examination of uterine and placental perfusion in cows in the last month of gestation and effects of epidural anesthesia and isoxsuprine


Kim-Egloff, C; Hässig, M; Bruckmaier, R; Bleul, U (2015). Doppler sonographic examination of uterine and placental perfusion in cows in the last month of gestation and effects of epidural anesthesia and isoxsuprine. Theriogenology, 85(5):986-998.

Abstract

The massive increase in size of the fetus and uterus in the last trimester is accompanied by an increasing demand for nutrients and oxygen, and it is assumed that this demand is met by increasing uterine and fetal perfusion. The goals of this study were to measure the perfusion of the uterine arteries and the placentomes in the last month of gestation and to investigate the effect of epidural anesthesia and isoxsuprine on perfusion. During the last month of gestation, eight Braunvieh cows underwent nine color Doppler sonographic examinations of the uterine arteries to determine diameter (DM), pulse rate (PR), resistance index, time-averaged maximum blood flow velocity (TAMV), and blood flow volume (BFV), and power-mode Doppler sonography was used to determine perfusion of placentomes. The PR increased (P < 0.001), and the BFV and TAMV of the ipsilateral uterine artery decreased between 4.5 and 0.5 weeks prepartum (BFV, 236.8 ± 65.80 and 208 ± 41.52 cm3/s, P < 0.01; TAMV, 140.0 ± 26.53 cm/s and 125.2 ± 18.46 cm/s, P < 0.05). After sonographic examination, the cows received epidural administration of local anesthetic (100-mg lidocaine) in the sacrococcygeal space or isoxsuprine (200 mg/cow, iv), and the sonographic measurements were repeated 30 minutes later. After epidural anesthesia, the TAMV and BFV of the contralateral uterine artery increased by 5.4% (P < 0.05) and 7.9% (P < 0.01). In the placentomes of the gravid uterine horn, the relative placentome perfusion and the color pixel grading (Cp) increased by 10.1% (P < 0.05) and 11.5% (P < 0.01) after epidural anesthesia. After isoxsuprine, the DM, PR, and BFV increased by 4.7%, 49.3%, and 16.9% in the ipsilateral uterine artery and by 10.8%, 48.7%, and 22.8%, respectively in the contralateral uterine artery. The TAMV of the ipsilateral uterine artery increased by 7.1% (P < 0.01), and the resistance index decreased in both uterine arteries (ipsilateral 24.2%, contralateral 14.9%, both P < 0.00001). Isoxsuprine increased the relative placentome perfusion and the Cp of the placentomes by 18.1% and 18.3% in the gravid horn and by 10.2% and 24.2% in the nongravid horn. Blood flow variables changed little in the last month of gestation. However, epidural anesthesia and isoxsuprine caused changes in uterine and placentome perfusion that suggest improvement of placental nutrient and oxygen supply to the fetus.

Abstract

The massive increase in size of the fetus and uterus in the last trimester is accompanied by an increasing demand for nutrients and oxygen, and it is assumed that this demand is met by increasing uterine and fetal perfusion. The goals of this study were to measure the perfusion of the uterine arteries and the placentomes in the last month of gestation and to investigate the effect of epidural anesthesia and isoxsuprine on perfusion. During the last month of gestation, eight Braunvieh cows underwent nine color Doppler sonographic examinations of the uterine arteries to determine diameter (DM), pulse rate (PR), resistance index, time-averaged maximum blood flow velocity (TAMV), and blood flow volume (BFV), and power-mode Doppler sonography was used to determine perfusion of placentomes. The PR increased (P < 0.001), and the BFV and TAMV of the ipsilateral uterine artery decreased between 4.5 and 0.5 weeks prepartum (BFV, 236.8 ± 65.80 and 208 ± 41.52 cm3/s, P < 0.01; TAMV, 140.0 ± 26.53 cm/s and 125.2 ± 18.46 cm/s, P < 0.05). After sonographic examination, the cows received epidural administration of local anesthetic (100-mg lidocaine) in the sacrococcygeal space or isoxsuprine (200 mg/cow, iv), and the sonographic measurements were repeated 30 minutes later. After epidural anesthesia, the TAMV and BFV of the contralateral uterine artery increased by 5.4% (P < 0.05) and 7.9% (P < 0.01). In the placentomes of the gravid uterine horn, the relative placentome perfusion and the color pixel grading (Cp) increased by 10.1% (P < 0.05) and 11.5% (P < 0.01) after epidural anesthesia. After isoxsuprine, the DM, PR, and BFV increased by 4.7%, 49.3%, and 16.9% in the ipsilateral uterine artery and by 10.8%, 48.7%, and 22.8%, respectively in the contralateral uterine artery. The TAMV of the ipsilateral uterine artery increased by 7.1% (P < 0.01), and the resistance index decreased in both uterine arteries (ipsilateral 24.2%, contralateral 14.9%, both P < 0.00001). Isoxsuprine increased the relative placentome perfusion and the Cp of the placentomes by 18.1% and 18.3% in the gravid horn and by 10.2% and 24.2% in the nongravid horn. Blood flow variables changed little in the last month of gestation. However, epidural anesthesia and isoxsuprine caused changes in uterine and placentome perfusion that suggest improvement of placental nutrient and oxygen supply to the fetus.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinary Clinic > Department of Farm Animals
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
630 Agriculture
Language:English
Date:29 June 2015
Deposited On:09 Feb 2016 11:29
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 20:00
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0093-691X
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2015.11.010
Related URLs:http://www.zora.uzh.ch/120738/

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