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The dynamics of growth of weight, circumferences and skinfolds in distance, velocity and acceleration


Gasser, Theo; Ziegler, P; Kneip, A; Prader, A; Molinari, L; Largo, R H (1993). The dynamics of growth of weight, circumferences and skinfolds in distance, velocity and acceleration. Annals of Human Biology, 20(3):239-259.

Abstract

Based on structural average curves of distance, velocity and acceleration, an analysis of the longitudinally assessed growth of weight, arm and calf circumferences and skinfolds (biceps, triceps, suprailiac, subscapular) was undertaken. The data come from the first Zürich longitudinal growth study and represent a normal sample. In addition to a graphic analysis, timing, intensity and duration of the mid-growth spurt (MS) and of the pubertal spurt (PS) are quantified via descriptive parameters of growth. Mechanisms are different and more complex for these variables, in particular for skinfolds, compared to previously studied somatic variables, such as height. Skinfolds showed a rapid decline to a negative velocity minimum in the first year, recovering to a pre-PS fat spurt, earlier and more pronounced for central (suprailiac, subscapular) than for peripheral skinfolds (biceps, triceps). At age of peak height velocity a drop occurred, stronger for boys, followed by a post-PS spurt. A further analysis demonstrates that these ups and downs in skinfold velocity are mainly due to subjects with thick skinfolds. Weight and circumferences show a distinct MS, with sex-independent characteristics and a strong, sex-dependent PS. Weight and even more arm circumference are delayed compared to height in puberty.

Abstract

Based on structural average curves of distance, velocity and acceleration, an analysis of the longitudinally assessed growth of weight, arm and calf circumferences and skinfolds (biceps, triceps, suprailiac, subscapular) was undertaken. The data come from the first Zürich longitudinal growth study and represent a normal sample. In addition to a graphic analysis, timing, intensity and duration of the mid-growth spurt (MS) and of the pubertal spurt (PS) are quantified via descriptive parameters of growth. Mechanisms are different and more complex for these variables, in particular for skinfolds, compared to previously studied somatic variables, such as height. Skinfolds showed a rapid decline to a negative velocity minimum in the first year, recovering to a pre-PS fat spurt, earlier and more pronounced for central (suprailiac, subscapular) than for peripheral skinfolds (biceps, triceps). At age of peak height velocity a drop occurred, stronger for boys, followed by a post-PS spurt. A further analysis demonstrates that these ups and downs in skinfold velocity are mainly due to subjects with thick skinfolds. Weight and circumferences show a distinct MS, with sex-independent characteristics and a strong, sex-dependent PS. Weight and even more arm circumference are delayed compared to height in puberty.

Citations

18 citations in Web of Science®
22 citations in Scopus®
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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute (EBPI)
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:1993
Deposited On:10 Jun 2016 09:30
Last Modified:12 Jun 2016 09:39
Publisher:Informa Healthcare
ISSN:0301-4460
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1080/03014469300002672
PubMed ID:8489199

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