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Static clathrin assemblies at the peripheral vacuole-plasma membrane interface of the parasitic protozoan giardia lamblia


Zumthor, Jon Paulin; Cernikova, Lenka; Rout, Samuel; Kaech, Andres; Faso, Carmen; Hehl, Adrian B (2016). Static clathrin assemblies at the peripheral vacuole-plasma membrane interface of the parasitic protozoan giardia lamblia. PLoS Pathogens, 12(7):e1005756.

Abstract

Giardia lamblia is a parasitic protozoan that infects a wide range of vertebrate hosts including humans. Trophozoites are non-invasive but associate tightly with the enterocyte surface of the small intestine. This narrow ecological specialization entailed extensive morphological and functional adaptations during host-parasite co-evolution, including a distinctly polarized array of endocytic organelles termed peripheral vacuoles (PVs), which are confined to the dorsal cortical region exposed to the gut lumen and are in close proximity to the plasma membrane (PM). Here, we investigated the molecular consequences of these adaptations on the Giardia endocytic machinery and membrane coat complexes. Despite the absence of canonical clathrin coated vesicles in electron microscopy, Giardia possesses conserved PV-associated clathrin heavy chain (GlCHC), dynamin-related protein (GlDRP), and assembly polypeptide complex 2 (AP2) subunits, suggesting a novel function for GlCHC and its adaptors. We found that, in contrast to GFP-tagged AP2 subunits and DRP, CHC::GFP reporters have no detectable turnover in living cells, indicating fundamental differences in recruitment to the membrane and disassembly compared to previously characterized clathrin coats. Histochemical localization in electron tomography showed that these long-lived GlCHC assemblies localized at distinctive approximations between the plasma and PV membrane. A detailed protein interactome of GlCHC revealed all of the conserved factors in addition to novel or highly diverged proteins, including a putative clathrin light chain and lipid-binding proteins. Taken together, our data provide strong evidence for giardial CHC as a component of highly stable assemblies at PV-PM junctions that likely have a central role in organizing continuities between the PM and PV membranes for controlled sampling of the fluid environment. This suggests a novel function for CHC in Giardia and the extent of molecular remodeling of endocytosis in this species.

Abstract

Giardia lamblia is a parasitic protozoan that infects a wide range of vertebrate hosts including humans. Trophozoites are non-invasive but associate tightly with the enterocyte surface of the small intestine. This narrow ecological specialization entailed extensive morphological and functional adaptations during host-parasite co-evolution, including a distinctly polarized array of endocytic organelles termed peripheral vacuoles (PVs), which are confined to the dorsal cortical region exposed to the gut lumen and are in close proximity to the plasma membrane (PM). Here, we investigated the molecular consequences of these adaptations on the Giardia endocytic machinery and membrane coat complexes. Despite the absence of canonical clathrin coated vesicles in electron microscopy, Giardia possesses conserved PV-associated clathrin heavy chain (GlCHC), dynamin-related protein (GlDRP), and assembly polypeptide complex 2 (AP2) subunits, suggesting a novel function for GlCHC and its adaptors. We found that, in contrast to GFP-tagged AP2 subunits and DRP, CHC::GFP reporters have no detectable turnover in living cells, indicating fundamental differences in recruitment to the membrane and disassembly compared to previously characterized clathrin coats. Histochemical localization in electron tomography showed that these long-lived GlCHC assemblies localized at distinctive approximations between the plasma and PV membrane. A detailed protein interactome of GlCHC revealed all of the conserved factors in addition to novel or highly diverged proteins, including a putative clathrin light chain and lipid-binding proteins. Taken together, our data provide strong evidence for giardial CHC as a component of highly stable assemblies at PV-PM junctions that likely have a central role in organizing continuities between the PM and PV membranes for controlled sampling of the fluid environment. This suggests a novel function for CHC in Giardia and the extent of molecular remodeling of endocytosis in this species.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Institute of Parasitology
04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Parasitology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
600 Technology
Language:English
Date:July 2016
Deposited On:05 Aug 2016 09:31
Last Modified:30 Nov 2016 08:28
Publisher:Public Library of Science (PLoS)
ISSN:1553-7366
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1005756
PubMed ID:27438602

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