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Hypoxia, a novel inducer of acute phase gene expression in a human hepatoma cell line


Wenger, R H; Rolfs, A; Marti, H H; Bauer, C; Gassmann, M (1995). Hypoxia, a novel inducer of acute phase gene expression in a human hepatoma cell line. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 270(46):27865-27870.

Abstract

Transcriptional regulation of gene expression by hypoxia is an important, but yet only marginally characterized mechanism by which organisms adapt to low oxygen concentrations. The human hepatoma cell line HepG2 is a widely used model for studying hypoxic induction of the hematopoietic growth factor erythropoietin. In an attempt to identify additional genes expressed in HepG2 cells during hypoxia, we differentially screened a cDNA library derived from hypoxic (1% O2) HepG2 cells using probes isolated from either normoxic (21% O2) or hypoxic cells. Two genes were identified, one encoding aldolase, a member of the glycolytic enzymes, and the other encoding alpha 1-antitrypsin which belongs to the family of the acute phase (AP) responsive proteins. Whereas hypoxic induction of glycolytic enzymes is well established, oxygen-dependent regulation of AP genes has not been reported so far. AP proteins are liver-derived plasma proteins whose production during inflammation is either up-regulated (positive AP reactants) or down-regulated (negative AP reactants). In the present study, we demonstrate that on the mRNA level hypoxic stimulation of HepG2 cells led to (i) an induction of the positive AP reactants alpha 1-antitrypsin, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, complement C3, haptoglobin, and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein; (ii) a down-regulation of the negative AP reactant albumin; (iii) an up-regulation of the negative AP reactant transferrin; and (iv) unchanged levels of the positive AP reactants alpha- and beta-fibrinogen as well as hemopexin. Cycloheximide inhibited hypoxic up-regulation of AP mRNAs demonstrating that de novo protein synthesis is required for hypoxic induction. Nuclear run-on assays indicate that the hypoxic increase in AP mRNAs is mainly due to transcriptional regulation. The hypoxic response was compared to AP stimulation by interleukin 6. The results suggest that the adaptive response to hypoxia overlaps with, but is not identical with, the AP response mediated by interleukin 6.

Abstract

Transcriptional regulation of gene expression by hypoxia is an important, but yet only marginally characterized mechanism by which organisms adapt to low oxygen concentrations. The human hepatoma cell line HepG2 is a widely used model for studying hypoxic induction of the hematopoietic growth factor erythropoietin. In an attempt to identify additional genes expressed in HepG2 cells during hypoxia, we differentially screened a cDNA library derived from hypoxic (1% O2) HepG2 cells using probes isolated from either normoxic (21% O2) or hypoxic cells. Two genes were identified, one encoding aldolase, a member of the glycolytic enzymes, and the other encoding alpha 1-antitrypsin which belongs to the family of the acute phase (AP) responsive proteins. Whereas hypoxic induction of glycolytic enzymes is well established, oxygen-dependent regulation of AP genes has not been reported so far. AP proteins are liver-derived plasma proteins whose production during inflammation is either up-regulated (positive AP reactants) or down-regulated (negative AP reactants). In the present study, we demonstrate that on the mRNA level hypoxic stimulation of HepG2 cells led to (i) an induction of the positive AP reactants alpha 1-antitrypsin, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, complement C3, haptoglobin, and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein; (ii) a down-regulation of the negative AP reactant albumin; (iii) an up-regulation of the negative AP reactant transferrin; and (iv) unchanged levels of the positive AP reactants alpha- and beta-fibrinogen as well as hemopexin. Cycloheximide inhibited hypoxic up-regulation of AP mRNAs demonstrating that de novo protein synthesis is required for hypoxic induction. Nuclear run-on assays indicate that the hypoxic increase in AP mRNAs is mainly due to transcriptional regulation. The hypoxic response was compared to AP stimulation by interleukin 6. The results suggest that the adaptive response to hypoxia overlaps with, but is not identical with, the AP response mediated by interleukin 6.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Physiology
07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Physiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
Language:English
Date:1995
Deposited On:11 Feb 2008 12:21
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 12:18
Publisher:American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
ISSN:0021-9258
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.270.46.27865
PubMed ID:7499259

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