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Effect of a Cast on Short-Term Reproducibility and Bone Parameters Obtained from HR-pQCT Measurements at the Distal End of the Radius


de Jong, Joost J A; Arts, Jacobus J; Meyer, Ursina; Willems, Paul C; Geusens, Piet P; van den Bergh, Joop P W; van Rietbergen, Bert (2016). Effect of a Cast on Short-Term Reproducibility and Bone Parameters Obtained from HR-pQCT Measurements at the Distal End of the Radius. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume, 98(5):356-362.

Abstract

BACKGROUND High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) is a promising tool to assess the fracture-healing process at the microscale in vivo. Since casts are often used during fracture treatment, they might affect the assessment of bone density, microarchitectural, and biomechanical parameters and the short-term reproducibility of those parameters, e.g., as a result of beam-hardening. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a plaster-of-Paris and/or fiberglass cast on bone parameters and on the short-term reproducibility of the HR-pQCT measurements of those parameters. METHODS The effects of a cast on HR-pQCT-derived bone parameters were evaluated by comparing HR-pQCT scans of fifteen human cadaveric distal radial specimens from one male and fourteen female donors (median age, eighty-four years [range, sixty-two to ninety years] at the time of death) in three conditions: with a plaster-of-Paris cast, with a fiberglass cast, or without a cast. Short-term reproducibility was assessed using duplicate scans of the distal end of the radius in sixteen healthy volunteers without a fracture (nine men and seven women with a median age of twenty-six years; range, twenty-two to thirty-nine years) while wearing and not wearing a fiberglass cast. RESULTS Compared with measurements made with no cast, the plaster-of-Paris cast introduced a systematic error in the bone parameters ranging from -2.6% in trabecular separation to -9.8% in cortical thickness. Bone parameters were affected only marginally by fiberglass, with errors between -0.6% and -1.6% in trabecular separation and cortical thickness, respectively. Short-term reproducibility with a fiberglass cast was similar to that with no cast: approximately 1% for bone density parameters, 4% to 5% for microarchitectural parameters, and 3% to 4% for biomechanical parameters. CONCLUSIONS A plaster-of-Paris cast has a considerable effect on HR-pQCT measurements. A fiberglass cast only marginally affects the bone parameters, and the short-term reproducibility of HR-pQCT measurements in patients with a fiberglass cast is comparable with that in patients without a cast. In studies on fracture-healing using HR-pQCT, a fiberglass cast is desirable if immobilization is indicated. The use of a plaster-of-Paris cast should be avoided if possible; however, if not avoidable, corrections after the scan are desirable to adjust for the error introduced in the bone parameters.

Abstract

BACKGROUND High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) is a promising tool to assess the fracture-healing process at the microscale in vivo. Since casts are often used during fracture treatment, they might affect the assessment of bone density, microarchitectural, and biomechanical parameters and the short-term reproducibility of those parameters, e.g., as a result of beam-hardening. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a plaster-of-Paris and/or fiberglass cast on bone parameters and on the short-term reproducibility of the HR-pQCT measurements of those parameters. METHODS The effects of a cast on HR-pQCT-derived bone parameters were evaluated by comparing HR-pQCT scans of fifteen human cadaveric distal radial specimens from one male and fourteen female donors (median age, eighty-four years [range, sixty-two to ninety years] at the time of death) in three conditions: with a plaster-of-Paris cast, with a fiberglass cast, or without a cast. Short-term reproducibility was assessed using duplicate scans of the distal end of the radius in sixteen healthy volunteers without a fracture (nine men and seven women with a median age of twenty-six years; range, twenty-two to thirty-nine years) while wearing and not wearing a fiberglass cast. RESULTS Compared with measurements made with no cast, the plaster-of-Paris cast introduced a systematic error in the bone parameters ranging from -2.6% in trabecular separation to -9.8% in cortical thickness. Bone parameters were affected only marginally by fiberglass, with errors between -0.6% and -1.6% in trabecular separation and cortical thickness, respectively. Short-term reproducibility with a fiberglass cast was similar to that with no cast: approximately 1% for bone density parameters, 4% to 5% for microarchitectural parameters, and 3% to 4% for biomechanical parameters. CONCLUSIONS A plaster-of-Paris cast has a considerable effect on HR-pQCT measurements. A fiberglass cast only marginally affects the bone parameters, and the short-term reproducibility of HR-pQCT measurements in patients with a fiberglass cast is comparable with that in patients without a cast. In studies on fracture-healing using HR-pQCT, a fiberglass cast is desirable if immobilization is indicated. The use of a plaster-of-Paris cast should be avoided if possible; however, if not avoidable, corrections after the scan are desirable to adjust for the error introduced in the bone parameters.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Geriatric Medicine
Dewey Decimal Classification:Unspecified
Language:English
Date:2 March 2016
Deposited On:06 Sep 2016 12:51
Last Modified:20 Sep 2016 00:01
Publisher:Boston, Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery
ISSN:0021-9355
Additional Information:Copyright: Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.O.00127
PubMed ID:26935457

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