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Hypovolemia induced systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve in two dogs


Hammes, K; Novo Matos, J; Baron Toaldo, M; Glaus, T (2016). Hypovolemia induced systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve in two dogs. Journal of Veterinary Cardiology, 18(4):367-371.

Abstract

Systolic anterior (septal) motion of the mitral valve (SAM) is a common secondary phenomenon in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) in people and cats. In humans, it is increasingly recognized that SAM may be found in other cardiac and non-cardiac disease states. In small animal cardiology, SAM unassociated with HCM has been described in dogs with mitral valve dysplasia and right ventricular pressure overload. In this report, we describe two cases of dogs where transient SAM was caused by hypovolemia. When SAM was present both dogs showed pseudohypertrophy and tachycardia. Important factors in the genesis of SAM in this scenario are probably hypovolemia induced changes in left ventricular geometry affecting the orientation of the mitral valve apparatus combined with elevated catecholamine levels. SAM associated with increased wall thickness is not pathognomonic of HCM; this observation is of particular clinical importance when extrapolated to species where HCM is highly prevalent, e.g., cats. An echocardiographic diagnosis should always be evaluated together with full clinical assessment of history and physical examination.

Abstract

Systolic anterior (septal) motion of the mitral valve (SAM) is a common secondary phenomenon in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) in people and cats. In humans, it is increasingly recognized that SAM may be found in other cardiac and non-cardiac disease states. In small animal cardiology, SAM unassociated with HCM has been described in dogs with mitral valve dysplasia and right ventricular pressure overload. In this report, we describe two cases of dogs where transient SAM was caused by hypovolemia. When SAM was present both dogs showed pseudohypertrophy and tachycardia. Important factors in the genesis of SAM in this scenario are probably hypovolemia induced changes in left ventricular geometry affecting the orientation of the mitral valve apparatus combined with elevated catecholamine levels. SAM associated with increased wall thickness is not pathognomonic of HCM; this observation is of particular clinical importance when extrapolated to species where HCM is highly prevalent, e.g., cats. An echocardiographic diagnosis should always be evaluated together with full clinical assessment of history and physical examination.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinary Clinic > Department of Small Animals
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
630 Agriculture
Date:14 September 2016
Deposited On:21 Sep 2016 09:00
Last Modified:09 Nov 2016 02:02
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:1760-2734
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvc.2016.06.003
PubMed ID:27639515

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