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Influence of bone marrow fat embolism on coagulation activation in an ovine model of vertebroplasty


Krebs, J; Ferguson, S J; Hoerstrup, S P; Goss, B G; Haeberli, A; Aebli, N (2008). Influence of bone marrow fat embolism on coagulation activation in an ovine model of vertebroplasty. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume, 90(2):349-356.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Intraoperative cardiovascular deterioration as a result of pulmonary embolization of bone marrow fat is a potentially serious complication during vertebroplasty. The release of fatty material and thromboplastin from the bone marrow cavity during vertebroplasty may activate the coagulation cascade resulting in thrombogenesis, and pharmacological prophylaxis may therefore prevent cardiovascular complications. Thus, the effects of bone marrow fat embolism on coagulation activation during vertebroplasty were investigated with use of an animal model. METHODS: Polymethylmethacrylate was injected into three lumbar vertebrae of six sheep in order to force bone marrow fat into the circulation. Invasive blood pressures and heart rate were recorded continuously until sixty minutes after the last injection. Cardiac output, arterial and mixed venous blood gas parameters, and coagulation parameters were measured at selected time-points. Postmortem lung biopsy specimens were assessed for the presence of intravascular fat. RESULTS: Embolization of bone marrow fat resulted in a sudden and dramatic increase in mean pulmonary arterial pressure and a decrease in mean arterial blood pressure. There were no significant changes in any coagulation parameter from before the injection to after the injection. Intravascular fat and bone marrow cells were present in all lung lobes. CONCLUSIONS: Injection of polymethylmethacrylate into vertebral bodies caused embolization of bone marrow fat with subsequent transient cardiovascular deterioration, but no changes in coagulation parameters were observed. Thromboembolism did not contribute to the observed cardiovascular changes.

BACKGROUND: Intraoperative cardiovascular deterioration as a result of pulmonary embolization of bone marrow fat is a potentially serious complication during vertebroplasty. The release of fatty material and thromboplastin from the bone marrow cavity during vertebroplasty may activate the coagulation cascade resulting in thrombogenesis, and pharmacological prophylaxis may therefore prevent cardiovascular complications. Thus, the effects of bone marrow fat embolism on coagulation activation during vertebroplasty were investigated with use of an animal model. METHODS: Polymethylmethacrylate was injected into three lumbar vertebrae of six sheep in order to force bone marrow fat into the circulation. Invasive blood pressures and heart rate were recorded continuously until sixty minutes after the last injection. Cardiac output, arterial and mixed venous blood gas parameters, and coagulation parameters were measured at selected time-points. Postmortem lung biopsy specimens were assessed for the presence of intravascular fat. RESULTS: Embolization of bone marrow fat resulted in a sudden and dramatic increase in mean pulmonary arterial pressure and a decrease in mean arterial blood pressure. There were no significant changes in any coagulation parameter from before the injection to after the injection. Intravascular fat and bone marrow cells were present in all lung lobes. CONCLUSIONS: Injection of polymethylmethacrylate into vertebral bodies caused embolization of bone marrow fat with subsequent transient cardiovascular deterioration, but no changes in coagulation parameters were observed. Thromboembolism did not contribute to the observed cardiovascular changes.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Division of Surgical Research
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:February 2008
Deposited On:12 Feb 2009 15:05
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 12:58
Publisher:Boston, Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery
ISSN:0021-9355
Publisher DOI:10.2106/JBJS.G.00058
PubMed ID:18245595
Permanent URL: http://doi.org/10.5167/uzh-12959

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