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Covalent surface heparinization potentiates porous polyurethane scaffold vascularization


Bezuidenhout, D; Davies, N; Black, M; Schmidt, C; Oosthuysen, A; Zilla, P (2010). Covalent surface heparinization potentiates porous polyurethane scaffold vascularization. Journal of Biomaterials Applications, 24(5):401-418.

Abstract

Porous scaffolds play an integral role in many tissue-engineering approaches, and the ability to improve vascularization, without eliciting an excessive inflammatory response, would constitute an important step towards achieving long-term healing and function of devices made from these materials. After having previously optimized the dimensional requirements of the well-defined pores, the present study aimed at a further shift from inflammation to vascularization via surface immobilization with heparin. Porous polyurethane disks were produced to contain well-defined pores (147 +/- 2 microm) with abundant interconnecting windows (67 +/- 2 microm). After heparinization via copolymer grafting and amination to contain 32 microg of heparin, the modification appeared as a uniform layer on all exposed surfaces, with no signs of pore obliteration or significant changes in pore size. After 28 days implantation in a rat subcutaneous model, the scaffolds were assessed for vascularization/arteriolization and inflammation using CD31/actin and ED-1 staining, respectively. Heparinization resulted in a significant increase in vascularization: capillaries increased by 62% in number (66.2 +/- 0.8 to 107.3 +/- 1.4 vessels/mm(2); p<0.03) and 56% in total area (0.9 +/- 0.1 to 1.4 +/- 0.02%; p<0.02). Arteriolization also increased in absolute terms (200% in number; p<0.03), but did not change significantly when normalized to capillary number. Heparinization did not significantly affect the inflammatory response at this time-point, as quantified by ED-1 positive macrophage and foreign body giant cell (FBGC) content. Thus, the in vivo vascularization of porous scaffolds could be increased without concomitant increase in the inflammatory response by employing a simple surface modification technique. This could be a valuable tool for in vivo tissue engineering applications where enhanced vascularization is required.

Abstract

Porous scaffolds play an integral role in many tissue-engineering approaches, and the ability to improve vascularization, without eliciting an excessive inflammatory response, would constitute an important step towards achieving long-term healing and function of devices made from these materials. After having previously optimized the dimensional requirements of the well-defined pores, the present study aimed at a further shift from inflammation to vascularization via surface immobilization with heparin. Porous polyurethane disks were produced to contain well-defined pores (147 +/- 2 microm) with abundant interconnecting windows (67 +/- 2 microm). After heparinization via copolymer grafting and amination to contain 32 microg of heparin, the modification appeared as a uniform layer on all exposed surfaces, with no signs of pore obliteration or significant changes in pore size. After 28 days implantation in a rat subcutaneous model, the scaffolds were assessed for vascularization/arteriolization and inflammation using CD31/actin and ED-1 staining, respectively. Heparinization resulted in a significant increase in vascularization: capillaries increased by 62% in number (66.2 +/- 0.8 to 107.3 +/- 1.4 vessels/mm(2); p<0.03) and 56% in total area (0.9 +/- 0.1 to 1.4 +/- 0.02%; p<0.02). Arteriolization also increased in absolute terms (200% in number; p<0.03), but did not change significantly when normalized to capillary number. Heparinization did not significantly affect the inflammatory response at this time-point, as quantified by ED-1 positive macrophage and foreign body giant cell (FBGC) content. Thus, the in vivo vascularization of porous scaffolds could be increased without concomitant increase in the inflammatory response by employing a simple surface modification technique. This could be a valuable tool for in vivo tissue engineering applications where enhanced vascularization is required.

Citations

15 citations in Web of Science®
20 citations in Scopus®
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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Cardiovascular Surgery
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:1 January 2010
Deposited On:11 Feb 2009 14:28
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 12:59
Publisher:Sage Publications
ISSN:0885-3282
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1177/0885328208097565
PubMed ID:19033329

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