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Flavonoids redirect PIN-mediated polar auxin fluxes during root gravitropic responses


Santelia, D; Henrichs, S; Vincenzetti, V; Sauer, M; Bigler, L; Klein, M; Bailly, A; Lee, Y; Friml, J; Geisler, M; Martinoia, E (2008). Flavonoids redirect PIN-mediated polar auxin fluxes during root gravitropic responses. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 283(45):31218-31226.

Abstract

The rate, polarity, and symmetry of the flow of the plant hormone auxin are determined by the polar cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carriers. Flavonoids, a class of secondary plant metabolites, have been suspected to modulate auxin transport and tropic responses. Nevertheless, the identity of specific flavonoid compounds involved and their molecular function and targets in vivo are essentially unknown. Here we show that the root elongation zone of agravitropic pin2/eir1/wav6/agr1 has an altered pattern and amount of flavonol glycosides. Application of nanomolar concentrations of flavonols to pin2 roots is sufficient to partially restore root gravitropism. By employing a quantitative cell biological approach, we demonstrate that flavonoids partially restore the formation of lateral auxin gradients in the absence of PIN2. Chemical complementation by flavonoids correlates with an asymmetric distribution of the PIN1 protein. pin2 complementation probably does not result from inhibition of auxin efflux, as supply of the auxin transport inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid failed to restore pin2 gravitropism. We propose that flavonoids promote asymmetric PIN shifts during gravity stimulation, thus redirecting basipetal auxin streams necessary for root bending.

The rate, polarity, and symmetry of the flow of the plant hormone auxin are determined by the polar cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carriers. Flavonoids, a class of secondary plant metabolites, have been suspected to modulate auxin transport and tropic responses. Nevertheless, the identity of specific flavonoid compounds involved and their molecular function and targets in vivo are essentially unknown. Here we show that the root elongation zone of agravitropic pin2/eir1/wav6/agr1 has an altered pattern and amount of flavonol glycosides. Application of nanomolar concentrations of flavonols to pin2 roots is sufficient to partially restore root gravitropism. By employing a quantitative cell biological approach, we demonstrate that flavonoids partially restore the formation of lateral auxin gradients in the absence of PIN2. Chemical complementation by flavonoids correlates with an asymmetric distribution of the PIN1 protein. pin2 complementation probably does not result from inhibition of auxin efflux, as supply of the auxin transport inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid failed to restore pin2 gravitropism. We propose that flavonoids promote asymmetric PIN shifts during gravity stimulation, thus redirecting basipetal auxin streams necessary for root bending.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Department of Plant and Microbial Biology
Dewey Decimal Classification:580 Plants (Botany)
Language:English
Date:November 2008
Deposited On:15 Feb 2009 14:53
Last Modified:26 Aug 2016 07:32
Publisher:American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
ISSN:0021-9258
Additional Information:This research was originally published in Santelia, D; Henrichs, S; Vincenzetti, V; Sauer, M; Bigler, L; Klein, M; Bailly, A; Lee, Y; Friml, J; Geisler, M; Martinoia, E (2008). Flavonoids redirect PIN-mediated polar auxin fluxes during root gravitropic responses. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 283(45):31218-31226. © the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:10.1074/jbc.M710122200
PubMed ID:18718912
Permanent URL: http://doi.org/10.5167/uzh-13672

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