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The evolution of drug-activated nuclear receptors: one ancestral gene diverged into two xenosensor genes in mammals


Handschin, C; Blättler, S; Roth, A; Looser, R; Oscarson, M; Kaufmann, M R; Podvinec, M; Gnerre, C; Meyer, U A (2004). The evolution of drug-activated nuclear receptors: one ancestral gene diverged into two xenosensor genes in mammals. Nuclear Receptor, 2(1):7.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Drugs and other xenobiotics alter gene expression of cytochromes P450 (CYP) by activating the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) in mammals. In non-mammalian species, only one xenosensor gene has been found. Using chicken as a model organism, the aim of our study was to elucidate whether non-mammalian species only have one or two xenosensors like mammals. RESULTS: To explore the evolutionary aspect of this divergence, we tried to identify additional xenobiotic sensing nuclear receptors in chicken using various experimental approaches. However, none of those revealed novel candidates. Ablation of chicken xenobiotic receptor (CXR) function by RNAi or dominant-negative alleles drastically reduced drug-induction in a chicken hepatoma cell line. Subsequently, we functionally and structurally characterized CXR and compared our results to PXR and CAR. Despite the high similarity in their amino acid sequence, PXR and CAR have very distinct modes of activation. Some aspects of CXR function, e.g. direct ligand activation and high promiscuity are very reminiscent of PXR. On the other hand, cellular localization studies revealed common characteristics of CXR and CAR in terms of cytoplasmic-nuclear distribution. Finally, CXR has unique properties regarding its regulation in comparison to PXR and CAR. CONCLUSION: Our finding thus strongly suggest that CXR constitutes an ancestral gene which has evolved into PXR and CAR in mammals. Future studies should elucidate the reason for this divergence in mammalian versus non-mammalian species.

BACKGROUND: Drugs and other xenobiotics alter gene expression of cytochromes P450 (CYP) by activating the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) in mammals. In non-mammalian species, only one xenosensor gene has been found. Using chicken as a model organism, the aim of our study was to elucidate whether non-mammalian species only have one or two xenosensors like mammals. RESULTS: To explore the evolutionary aspect of this divergence, we tried to identify additional xenobiotic sensing nuclear receptors in chicken using various experimental approaches. However, none of those revealed novel candidates. Ablation of chicken xenobiotic receptor (CXR) function by RNAi or dominant-negative alleles drastically reduced drug-induction in a chicken hepatoma cell line. Subsequently, we functionally and structurally characterized CXR and compared our results to PXR and CAR. Despite the high similarity in their amino acid sequence, PXR and CAR have very distinct modes of activation. Some aspects of CXR function, e.g. direct ligand activation and high promiscuity are very reminiscent of PXR. On the other hand, cellular localization studies revealed common characteristics of CXR and CAR in terms of cytoplasmic-nuclear distribution. Finally, CXR has unique properties regarding its regulation in comparison to PXR and CAR. CONCLUSION: Our finding thus strongly suggest that CXR constitutes an ancestral gene which has evolved into PXR and CAR in mammals. Future studies should elucidate the reason for this divergence in mammalian versus non-mammalian species.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Physiology
07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Physiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
Language:English
Date:2004
Deposited On:11 Feb 2008 12:22
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 12:18
Publisher:BioMed Central
ISSN:1478-1336
Additional Information:Free full text article
Publisher DOI:10.1186/1478-1336-2-7
Official URL:http://www.nuclear-receptor.com/content/pdf/1478-1336-2-7.pdf
PubMed ID:15479477
Permanent URL: http://doi.org/10.5167/uzh-1371

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