This review summarizes the characteristics of the solute carrier family SLC34 that is represented by the type ll Na/P(i)-cotransporters NaPi-lla (SLC34A1), NaPi-llb (SLC34A2) and NaPi-llc (SLC34A3). Other Na/P(i)-cotransporters are described within the SLC17 and SLC20 families. Type ll Na/P(i)-cotransporters are expressed in several tissues and play a major role in the homeostasis of inorganic phosphate. In kidney and small intestine, type ll Na/P(i)-cotransporters are located at the apical sites of epithelial cells and represent the rate limiting steps for transepithelial movement of phosphate. Physiological and pathophysiological regulation of renal and small intestinal epithelial transport of phosphate occurs through alterations in the abundance of type ll Na/P(i)-cotransporters.