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Trainingsrelevante Determinanten der molekularen und zellulären Skelettmuskeladaptation. Teil 1: Einleitung und Längenadaptation


Toigo, M (2006). Trainingsrelevante Determinanten der molekularen und zellulären Skelettmuskeladaptation. Teil 1: Einleitung und Längenadaptation. Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Sportmedizin und Sporttraumatologie, 54(3):101-107.

Abstract

Physical activity relies on muscular force. In adult skeletal muscle, force results from the contraction of postmitotic, multinucleated myofibres of different contractile and metabolic properties. Myofibres can adapt to (patho-)physiological conditions of altered functional demand by (a) radial growth, (b) longitudinal growth,
and (c) regulation of fi bre type functional gene modules. The adaptation’s specifi city depends on the distinct molecular and cellular events triggered by unique combinations of conditional cues.
In order to derive effective and tailored exercise prescriptions, it must be determined (1) which mechano-biological condition leads to what molecular/cellular response, (2) how this molecular/cellular response relates to the structural, contractile, and metabolic
adaptation, and (3) how the molecular/cellular response relates to the functional/clinical effects. It follows that a thorough mechano-biological description of the loading condition is imperative.
Unfortunately, the defi nition of (resistance) exercise conditions in the past and present literature is insufficient. It is classically limited to load magnitude, number of repetitions and sets, rest in-between sets, number of interventions/week, and training period.
In this article, which is based on a recently published review (Toigo and Boutellier 2006), I show why the current description is insufficient, and identify new determinants of quantitative and/or qualitative effects on skeletal muscle with respect to resistance exercise in healthy, adult humans. These new mandatory determinants
comprise the fractional and temporal distribution of the
contraction modes per repetition, duration of one repetition, rest in-between repetitions, time under tension, muscular failure, range of motion, recovery time, and anatomical defi nition. I strongly suggest to standardise the design and description of all future
resistance exercise investigations by using the herein proposed set of thirteen mechano-biological determinants (classical and new ones). In this first part of the review article (part 1: introduction and muscle length adaptation) I will introduce the determinants that are critical for exercise-induced regulation of skeletal muscle (fibre) length. In part 2, the determinants for radial growth, as well as contractile and metabolic conditioning will be presented.

Abstract

Physical activity relies on muscular force. In adult skeletal muscle, force results from the contraction of postmitotic, multinucleated myofibres of different contractile and metabolic properties. Myofibres can adapt to (patho-)physiological conditions of altered functional demand by (a) radial growth, (b) longitudinal growth,
and (c) regulation of fi bre type functional gene modules. The adaptation’s specifi city depends on the distinct molecular and cellular events triggered by unique combinations of conditional cues.
In order to derive effective and tailored exercise prescriptions, it must be determined (1) which mechano-biological condition leads to what molecular/cellular response, (2) how this molecular/cellular response relates to the structural, contractile, and metabolic
adaptation, and (3) how the molecular/cellular response relates to the functional/clinical effects. It follows that a thorough mechano-biological description of the loading condition is imperative.
Unfortunately, the defi nition of (resistance) exercise conditions in the past and present literature is insufficient. It is classically limited to load magnitude, number of repetitions and sets, rest in-between sets, number of interventions/week, and training period.
In this article, which is based on a recently published review (Toigo and Boutellier 2006), I show why the current description is insufficient, and identify new determinants of quantitative and/or qualitative effects on skeletal muscle with respect to resistance exercise in healthy, adult humans. These new mandatory determinants
comprise the fractional and temporal distribution of the
contraction modes per repetition, duration of one repetition, rest in-between repetitions, time under tension, muscular failure, range of motion, recovery time, and anatomical defi nition. I strongly suggest to standardise the design and description of all future
resistance exercise investigations by using the herein proposed set of thirteen mechano-biological determinants (classical and new ones). In this first part of the review article (part 1: introduction and muscle length adaptation) I will introduce the determinants that are critical for exercise-induced regulation of skeletal muscle (fibre) length. In part 2, the determinants for radial growth, as well as contractile and metabolic conditioning will be presented.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, not refereed, further contribution
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Center for Integrative Human Physiology
04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Physiology
07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Physiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Language:German
Date:2006
Deposited On:26 Mar 2009 18:40
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 13:05
Publisher:Haupt
ISSN:1022-6699
Official URL:http://sgsm-ssms.ch/ssms_publication/file/242/Trainingsrelevante_Determinanten_54_3_06.pdf
Related URLs:http://sgsm-ssms.ch (Publisher)

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