Since more than 20 years elevated homocysteine plasma levels have been associated with an elevated cardiovascular risk. It can be assumed that approx. 5-7% of the Swiss population suffers from hyperhomocysteinemia. These people have an odds ratio of 1.7 (95% confidence interval: 1.5-1.9) to develop a myocardial infarction and an odds ratio of 2.5 (95% confidence interval 2-3) of developing a stroke. These significant cardiovascular endpoints have monetary implications and lead to a loss in life years. The cost consequences and total life years lost were determined with an incidence-based epidemiological model utilizing a Swiss third party payer perspective. We could demonstrate that hyperhomocysteinemia-related sequelae (myocardial infarction and stroke) amount to 41.1-110.2 million CHF. In addition it can be estimated that 6'941-18'478 life years may be lost.Comparing these data with the total costs for cardiovascular disease in Switzerland of CHF 987 million, we estimate the share of the economic burden of hyperhomocysteinemia at approximately 10%. Preventive measures could thus yield a positive impact on total health care expenditure in the Swiss healthcare system and warrants further research.