In scrapie-infected mice, prions are found associated with splenic but not circulating B and T lymphocytes and in the stroma, which contains follicular dendritic cells (FDCs). Formation and maintenance of mature FDCs require the presence of B cells expressing membrane-bound lymphotoxin-alpha/beta. Treatment of mice with soluble lymphotoxin-beta receptor results in the disappearance of mature FDCs from the spleen. We show that this treatment abolishes splenic prion accumulation and retards neuroinvasion after intraperitoneal scrapie inoculation. These data provide evidence that FDCs are the principal sites for prion replication in the spleen.