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Toggenburg Orbivirus, a new bluetongue virus: Initial detection, first observations in field and experimental infection of goats and sheep


Chaignat, V; Worwa, G; Scherrer, N; Hilbe, M; Ehrensperger, F; Batten, C; Cortyen, M; Hofmann, M; Thuer, B (2009). Toggenburg Orbivirus, a new bluetongue virus: Initial detection, first observations in field and experimental infection of goats and sheep. Veterinary Microbiology, 138(1-2):11-9.

Abstract

A novel bluetongue virus termed "Toggenburg Orbivirus" (TOV) was detected in two Swiss goat flocks. This orbivirus was characterized by sequencing of 7 of its 10 viral genome segments. The sequencing data revealed that this virus is likely to represent a new serotype of bluetongue virus [Hofmann, M.A., Renzullo, S., Mader, M., Chaignat, V., Worwa, G., Thuer, B., 2008b. Genetic characterization of Toggenburg Orbivirus (TOV) as a tentative 25th serotype of bluetongue virus, detected in goats from Switzerland. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14, 1855-1861]. In the field, no clinical signs were observed in TOV-infected adult goats; however, several stillborn and weak born kids were reported. Although born during a period of extremely low vector activity, one of these kids was found to be antibody and viral genome positive and died 3.5 weeks postpartum. Experimental infection of goats and sheep, using TOV-positive field blood samples, was performed to assess the pathogenicity of this virus. Goats did not show any clinical or pathological signs, whereas in sheep mild bluetongue-like clinical signs were observed. Necropsy of sheep demonstrated bluetongue-typical hemorrhages in the wall of the pulmonary artery. Viral RNA was detected in organs, e.g. spleen, palatine tonsils, lung and several lymph nodes of three experimentally infected animals. Unlike other bluetongue virus serotypes, it was not possible to propagate the virus, either from naturally or experimentally infected animals in any of the tested mammalian or insect cell lines or in embryonated chicken eggs. In small ruminants, TOV leads to mild bluetongue-like symptoms. Further investigations about prevalence of this virus are needed to increase the knowledge on its epidemiology.

A novel bluetongue virus termed "Toggenburg Orbivirus" (TOV) was detected in two Swiss goat flocks. This orbivirus was characterized by sequencing of 7 of its 10 viral genome segments. The sequencing data revealed that this virus is likely to represent a new serotype of bluetongue virus [Hofmann, M.A., Renzullo, S., Mader, M., Chaignat, V., Worwa, G., Thuer, B., 2008b. Genetic characterization of Toggenburg Orbivirus (TOV) as a tentative 25th serotype of bluetongue virus, detected in goats from Switzerland. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14, 1855-1861]. In the field, no clinical signs were observed in TOV-infected adult goats; however, several stillborn and weak born kids were reported. Although born during a period of extremely low vector activity, one of these kids was found to be antibody and viral genome positive and died 3.5 weeks postpartum. Experimental infection of goats and sheep, using TOV-positive field blood samples, was performed to assess the pathogenicity of this virus. Goats did not show any clinical or pathological signs, whereas in sheep mild bluetongue-like clinical signs were observed. Necropsy of sheep demonstrated bluetongue-typical hemorrhages in the wall of the pulmonary artery. Viral RNA was detected in organs, e.g. spleen, palatine tonsils, lung and several lymph nodes of three experimentally infected animals. Unlike other bluetongue virus serotypes, it was not possible to propagate the virus, either from naturally or experimentally infected animals in any of the tested mammalian or insect cell lines or in embryonated chicken eggs. In small ruminants, TOV leads to mild bluetongue-like symptoms. Further investigations about prevalence of this virus are needed to increase the knowledge on its epidemiology.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Institute of Veterinary Pathology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
Date:2009
Deposited On:22 Jul 2009 08:15
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 13:17
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0378-1135
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2009.02.003
PubMed ID:19272719
Permanent URL: https://doi.org/10.5167/uzh-19698

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