Permanent URL to this publication: http://dx.doi.org/10.5167/uzh-20277
Prigerson, H G; Horowitz, M J; Jacobs, S C; Parkes, C M; Aslan, M; Goodkin, K; Raphael, B; Marwit, S J; Wortman, C; Neimeyer, R A; Bonanno, G; Block, S D; Kissane, D; Boelen, P; Maercker, A; Litz, B T; Johnson, J G; First, M B; Maciejewski, P K (2009). Prolonged Grief Disorder: Psychometric Validation of Criteria Proposed for DSM-V and ICD-11. PLoS Medicine, 6(8):e1000121.
View at publisher
Background: Bereavement is a universal experience, and its association with excess morbidity and mortality is well established. Nevertheless, grief becomes a serious health concern for a relative few. For such individuals, intense grief persists, is distressing and disabling, and may meet criteria as a distinct mental disorder. At present, grief is not recognized as a mental disorder in the DSM-IV or ICD-10. The goal of this study was to determine the psychometric validity of criteria for prolonged grief disorder (PGD) to enhance the detection and potential treatment of bereaved individuals at heightened risk of persistent distress and dysfunction. Methods and Findings: A total of 291 bereaved respondents were interviewed three times, grouped as 0–6, 6–12, and 12– 24 mo post-loss. Item response theory (IRT) analyses derived the most informative, unbiased PGD symptoms. Combinatoric analyses identified the most sensitive and specific PGD algorithm that was then tested to evaluate its psychometric validity. Criteria require reactions to a significant loss that involve the experience of yearning (e.g., physical or emotional suffering as a result of the desired, but unfulfilled, reunion with the deceased) and at least five of the following nine symptoms experienced at least daily or to a disabling degree: feeling emotionally numb, stunned, or that life is meaningless; experiencing mistrust; bitterness over the loss; difficulty accepting the loss; identity confusion; avoidance of the reality of the loss; or difficulty moving on with life. Symptoms must be present at sufficiently high levels at least six mo from the death and be associated with functional impairment. Conclusions: The criteria set for PGD appear able to identify bereaved persons at heightened risk for enduring distress and dysfunction. The results support the psychometric validity of the criteria for PGD that we propose for inclusion in DSM-V and ICD-11. Please see later in the article for the Editors’ Summary. Citation: Prigerson HG, Horowitz MJ, Jacobs SC, Parkes CM, Aslan M, et al. (2009) Prolonged Grief Disorder: Psychometric Validation of Criteria Proposed for DSMV and ICD-11. PLoS Med 6(8): e1000121. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000121 Academic Editor: Carol Brayne, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom Received March 10, 2008; Accepted June 25, 2009; Published August 4, 2009 Copyright: 2009 Prigerson et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Funding: HGP was supported by National Institute of Mental Health grants MH56529 and MH63892, and National Cancer Institute grant CA106370. PKM was supported by NIH grant NS044316. The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing Interests: MBF received consultant fees over the past 5 years from Roche, Corcept, Wyeth, Cephalon, Astra-Zeneca, Shire, GSK, and Eli Lilly for preparing diagnostic interviews and/or conducting diagnostic trainings at investigator meetings. Abbreviations: 2-PL, two-parameter logistic; DIF, differential item functioning; DSM-IV, Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition; GAD, generalized anxiety disorder; ICD-10, International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems; ICG-R, Inventory of Complicated Grief—Revised; IIF, item information function; IRM, item response model; IRT, item response theory; MDD, major depressive disorder; PG, prolonged grief; PGD, prolonged grief disorder; PTSD, posttraumatic stress disorder; SCID, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV; WPS, Widowed Persons Service; YBS, Yale Bereavement Study.
85 downloads since deposited on 21 Aug 2009
22 downloads since 12 months
|Item Type:||Journal Article, refereed, original work|
|Communities & Collections:||06 Faculty of Arts > Institute of Psychology|
|Dewey Decimal Classification:||150 Psychology|
|Deposited On:||21 Aug 2009 15:35|
|Last Modified:||14 Dec 2014 09:16|
|Publisher:||Public Library of Science (PLoS)|
Users (please log in): suggest update or correction for this item
Repository Staff Only: item control page