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Triple and quadruple spontaneous cervical artery dissection: presenting characteristics and long-term outcome


Arnold, M; De Marchis, G M; Stapf, C; Baumgartner, R W; Nedeltchev, K; Buffon, F; Galimanis, A; Sarikaya, H; Mattle, H P; Bousser, M G (2009). Triple and quadruple spontaneous cervical artery dissection: presenting characteristics and long-term outcome. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 80(2):171-174.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Spontaneous cervicocephalic artery dissection (sCAD) of more than two cervical arteries is rare. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Vascular and potential sCAD risk factors, triggering events, clinical and neuroimaging findings, and outcome of patients with multiple sCAD were studied. Patients were drawn from prospective hospital-based sCAD registries. RESULTS: Of 740 consecutive patients with sCAD, 11 (1.5%) had three, and one had four (0.1%) sCAD. Eight of these 12 patients were women. One patient had additional dissections of the celiac trunk and hepatic artery. Vascular risk factors included hypertension (n = 1), hypercholesterolaemia (n = 6), current smoking (n = 5) and migraine (n = 6). No patient had a family history of sCAD, fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) or connective tissue disease. SCAD was preceded by a minor trauma in five and infection in four patients. Clinical manifestations included ischaemic stroke (n = 8), transient ischaemic attack (n = 3), headache (n = 9), neck pain (n = 4), Horner syndrome (n = 5), pulsatile tinnitus (n = 2) and dysgeusia (n = 1). Brain MRI revealed ischaemic infarcts that affected one vessel territory in seven and two territories in two patients. The 3-month outcome was favourable (modified Rankin scale score 0-1) in 10 patients (83%). No new recurrent stroke or sCAD occurred during a mean follow-up of 50 (SD 29) months. CONCLUSION: Multiple sCAD occurred preferentially in women and caused clinical symptoms and signs mainly in one vascular territory. In none of the patients was FMD or any other underlying arteriopathy apparent. The majority of multiple sCAD was preceded by a minor trauma or infection. Clinical outcome was favourable in most patients, and long-term prognosis benign. The data suggest that transient vasculopathy may be a major mechanism for multiple sCAD.

BACKGROUND: Spontaneous cervicocephalic artery dissection (sCAD) of more than two cervical arteries is rare. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Vascular and potential sCAD risk factors, triggering events, clinical and neuroimaging findings, and outcome of patients with multiple sCAD were studied. Patients were drawn from prospective hospital-based sCAD registries. RESULTS: Of 740 consecutive patients with sCAD, 11 (1.5%) had three, and one had four (0.1%) sCAD. Eight of these 12 patients were women. One patient had additional dissections of the celiac trunk and hepatic artery. Vascular risk factors included hypertension (n = 1), hypercholesterolaemia (n = 6), current smoking (n = 5) and migraine (n = 6). No patient had a family history of sCAD, fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) or connective tissue disease. SCAD was preceded by a minor trauma in five and infection in four patients. Clinical manifestations included ischaemic stroke (n = 8), transient ischaemic attack (n = 3), headache (n = 9), neck pain (n = 4), Horner syndrome (n = 5), pulsatile tinnitus (n = 2) and dysgeusia (n = 1). Brain MRI revealed ischaemic infarcts that affected one vessel territory in seven and two territories in two patients. The 3-month outcome was favourable (modified Rankin scale score 0-1) in 10 patients (83%). No new recurrent stroke or sCAD occurred during a mean follow-up of 50 (SD 29) months. CONCLUSION: Multiple sCAD occurred preferentially in women and caused clinical symptoms and signs mainly in one vascular territory. In none of the patients was FMD or any other underlying arteriopathy apparent. The majority of multiple sCAD was preceded by a minor trauma or infection. Clinical outcome was favourable in most patients, and long-term prognosis benign. The data suggest that transient vasculopathy may be a major mechanism for multiple sCAD.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Neurology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2009
Deposited On:03 Sep 2009 07:13
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 13:20
Publisher:BMJ Publishing Group
ISSN:0022-3050
Publisher DOI:10.1136/jnnp.2008.155226
PubMed ID:18977815
Permanent URL: http://doi.org/10.5167/uzh-20558

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