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Adult versus adolescent onset of smoking: how are mood disorders and other risk factors involved?


Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Landolt, Karin; Angst, Jules; Gamma, Alex; Merikangas, Kathleen R; Gutzwiller, Felix; Rössler, Wulf (2009). Adult versus adolescent onset of smoking: how are mood disorders and other risk factors involved? Addiction, 104(8):1411-1419.

Abstract

AIMS: To examine the strength of association between smoking and mood disorders and the association between smoking and its traditional risk factors, comparing those who started smoking in adolescence with those who started smoking in early adulthood. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: The analyses relied on prospective data from the Zurich Study. This longitudinal community study started in 1979 with a stratified sample of 591 participants aged 20/21 years, weighted towards those with mental disorders. Follow-up interviews were conducted at ages 23, 28, 30, 35 and 41. MEASUREMENTS: In this analysis the adult versus adolescent onset of smoking was regressed on the cumulative prevalence of mood disorders, personality characteristics measured by the Freiburg Personality Inventory, common risk factors such as parental smoking, conduct and school problems, troubles with the family and basic socio-demographic variables (sex, education). FINDINGS: In the Zurich Study cohort we found that 61.6% were former or current smokers, of whom 87% started smoking before the age of 20 and 13% after the age of 20. Adolescent onset of smoking was associated strongly with later major depression, dysthymia or bipolar disorders and, furthermore, with parental smoking, extroverted personality and discipline problems and rebelliousness in youth. However, only depression and dysthymia were associated with adult onset smoking and other risk factors associated with smoking were not so associated in this group. CONCLUSIONS: Correlates of smoking onset in adolescence are mainly not applicable to the onset of smoking in young adulthood. Smoking onset beyond adolescence is an open research issue.

AIMS: To examine the strength of association between smoking and mood disorders and the association between smoking and its traditional risk factors, comparing those who started smoking in adolescence with those who started smoking in early adulthood. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: The analyses relied on prospective data from the Zurich Study. This longitudinal community study started in 1979 with a stratified sample of 591 participants aged 20/21 years, weighted towards those with mental disorders. Follow-up interviews were conducted at ages 23, 28, 30, 35 and 41. MEASUREMENTS: In this analysis the adult versus adolescent onset of smoking was regressed on the cumulative prevalence of mood disorders, personality characteristics measured by the Freiburg Personality Inventory, common risk factors such as parental smoking, conduct and school problems, troubles with the family and basic socio-demographic variables (sex, education). FINDINGS: In the Zurich Study cohort we found that 61.6% were former or current smokers, of whom 87% started smoking before the age of 20 and 13% after the age of 20. Adolescent onset of smoking was associated strongly with later major depression, dysthymia or bipolar disorders and, furthermore, with parental smoking, extroverted personality and discipline problems and rebelliousness in youth. However, only depression and dysthymia were associated with adult onset smoking and other risk factors associated with smoking were not so associated in this group. CONCLUSIONS: Correlates of smoking onset in adolescence are mainly not applicable to the onset of smoking in young adulthood. Smoking onset beyond adolescence is an open research issue.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute (EBPI)
04 Faculty of Medicine > Psychiatric University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Clinical and Social Psychiatry Zurich West (former)
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2009
Deposited On:05 Oct 2009 07:10
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 13:22
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN:0965-2140
Additional Information:The definitive version is available at www.blackwell-synergy.com
Publisher DOI:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02640.x
PubMed ID:19624327
Permanent URL: http://doi.org/10.5167/uzh-21049

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