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Antiretroviral treatment monitoring with an improved HIV-1 p24 antigen test: an inexpensive alternative to tests for viral RNA.


Schüpbach, J; Böni, J; Flepp, M; Tomasik, Z; Joller, H; Opravil, M (2001). Antiretroviral treatment monitoring with an improved HIV-1 p24 antigen test: an inexpensive alternative to tests for viral RNA. Journal of Medical Virology, 65(2):225-232.

Abstract

Monitoring of viral RNA has become indispensable for the management of HIV-1 infection, but is expensive. This study investigated whether a highly improved test for p24 antigen could serve as an alternative. Thirty-four patients enrolled during 1997 into two treatment studies were tested prospectively for viral RNA by the Roche HIV-1 Monitor and for p24 antigen using signal-amplification-boosted ELISA of heat-denatured plasma. P24 antigen was detectable in 75.8% of 178 samples and HIV RNA in 73.9% of 138 samples. The half-life of p24 antigen in the first phase of effective treatment was 1.6 +/-.4 days (RNA, 1.7 +/-.8). An apparent second, slower decay phase had a half-life of 42 +/- 16 days. Treatment failure occurred in 14 patients. Secondary treatment failures with RNA rebounds from undetectable levels to < or = 10(3) copies/ml in two patients with an undetectable viral load and 10(3) HIV RNA copies/ml, respectively, at baseline were not detected by p24 antigen but carried a low risk for secondary resistance mutations. The other 12 failures were on average detected 29 days earlier by p24 antigen than by RNA (P =.0204), owing to slightly more frequent testing for p24 than for RNA (2.7 vs. 2.4 tests). Average costs for p24 antigen testing up to a failure were only 20.5% of those for RNA (P <.0001). These results indicate that heat-denatured, amplification-boosted p24 antigen measurement can be used as a simple and inexpensive alternative to HIV RNA testing for monitoring treatment.

Monitoring of viral RNA has become indispensable for the management of HIV-1 infection, but is expensive. This study investigated whether a highly improved test for p24 antigen could serve as an alternative. Thirty-four patients enrolled during 1997 into two treatment studies were tested prospectively for viral RNA by the Roche HIV-1 Monitor and for p24 antigen using signal-amplification-boosted ELISA of heat-denatured plasma. P24 antigen was detectable in 75.8% of 178 samples and HIV RNA in 73.9% of 138 samples. The half-life of p24 antigen in the first phase of effective treatment was 1.6 +/-.4 days (RNA, 1.7 +/-.8). An apparent second, slower decay phase had a half-life of 42 +/- 16 days. Treatment failure occurred in 14 patients. Secondary treatment failures with RNA rebounds from undetectable levels to < or = 10(3) copies/ml in two patients with an undetectable viral load and 10(3) HIV RNA copies/ml, respectively, at baseline were not detected by p24 antigen but carried a low risk for secondary resistance mutations. The other 12 failures were on average detected 29 days earlier by p24 antigen than by RNA (P =.0204), owing to slightly more frequent testing for p24 than for RNA (2.7 vs. 2.4 tests). Average costs for p24 antigen testing up to a failure were only 20.5% of those for RNA (P <.0001). These results indicate that heat-denatured, amplification-boosted p24 antigen measurement can be used as a simple and inexpensive alternative to HIV RNA testing for monitoring treatment.

Citations

37 citations in Web of Science®
41 citations in Scopus®
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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Medical Virology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:1 October 2001
Deposited On:11 Feb 2008 12:28
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 12:22
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN:0146-6615
Publisher DOI:10.1002/jmv.2024
PubMed ID:11536227

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