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Quantification of Enterobacteriaceae in faeces of captive black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) in relation to dietary tannin supplementation


Clauss, M; Wittenbrink, M M; Castell, J C; Kienzle, E; Dierenfeld, E S; Flach, E J; Macgregor, S K; Hoppe, T; Hummel, J; Streich, W J; Hatt, J M (2008). Quantification of Enterobacteriaceae in faeces of captive black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) in relation to dietary tannin supplementation. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 92(1):29-34.

Abstract

Free-ranging browsing herbivores ingest a range of secondary plant compounds, such as tannins, with their natural diet. As many of these substances have been shown to have antibacterial properties, it could be speculated that a lack of such compounds in captive zoo diets could favour the growth of potentially pathogenic intestinal bacteria. The effect of a supplementation of a conventional diet (N, consisting mainly of grass hay and/or lucerne hay and pelleted compound feeds) fed to eight captive black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis) from three zoological institutions with either tannic acid (T), a source of hydrolysable tannins, or quebracho (Q), a source of condensed tannins, was investigated. The number of faecal colony forming units (CFU) of Enterobactericeae was determined by colony count of dilution series from fresh faeces applied to MacConkey agar plates. Tannins were added to the diets at approximately 5-15 g/kg dry matter, depending on the varying intake of roughage and compound feeds by the animals. There was no difference in the number of CFU between diets N (95.0 x 10(5) +/- 225.3 x 10(5)/g fresh faeces) and T (164.3 x 10(5) +/- 225.1 x 10(5)/g fresh faeces); in contrast, diet Q led to a significant reduction in CFU (4.3 x 10(5) +/- 6.5 x 10(5)/g fresh faeces) compared with the other diets. These findings suggest that condensed tannins could have the potential to reduce the number of potentially pathogenic intestinal bacteria, and that the deliberate inclusion of tannin sources in the diets of captive wild animals should be further investigated. The fact that tannic acid, shown to have antibacterial effects in various in vitro studies, did not have an effect in this study, emphasizes that the relevance of tannin supplementation for intestinal health must be verified in vivo.

Free-ranging browsing herbivores ingest a range of secondary plant compounds, such as tannins, with their natural diet. As many of these substances have been shown to have antibacterial properties, it could be speculated that a lack of such compounds in captive zoo diets could favour the growth of potentially pathogenic intestinal bacteria. The effect of a supplementation of a conventional diet (N, consisting mainly of grass hay and/or lucerne hay and pelleted compound feeds) fed to eight captive black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis) from three zoological institutions with either tannic acid (T), a source of hydrolysable tannins, or quebracho (Q), a source of condensed tannins, was investigated. The number of faecal colony forming units (CFU) of Enterobactericeae was determined by colony count of dilution series from fresh faeces applied to MacConkey agar plates. Tannins were added to the diets at approximately 5-15 g/kg dry matter, depending on the varying intake of roughage and compound feeds by the animals. There was no difference in the number of CFU between diets N (95.0 x 10(5) +/- 225.3 x 10(5)/g fresh faeces) and T (164.3 x 10(5) +/- 225.1 x 10(5)/g fresh faeces); in contrast, diet Q led to a significant reduction in CFU (4.3 x 10(5) +/- 6.5 x 10(5)/g fresh faeces) compared with the other diets. These findings suggest that condensed tannins could have the potential to reduce the number of potentially pathogenic intestinal bacteria, and that the deliberate inclusion of tannin sources in the diets of captive wild animals should be further investigated. The fact that tannic acid, shown to have antibacterial effects in various in vitro studies, did not have an effect in this study, emphasizes that the relevance of tannin supplementation for intestinal health must be verified in vivo.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Institute of Veterinary Bacteriology
05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinary Clinic > Department of Small Animals
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
Language:English
Date:2008
Deposited On:23 Apr 2008 12:31
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 12:22
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN:0931-2439
Publisher DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0396.2007.00687.x
PubMed ID:18184377
Permanent URL: http://doi.org/10.5167/uzh-2327

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