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Diet determines features of the metabolic syndrome in 6- to 14-year-old children


Aeberli, I; Spinas, G A; Lehmann, R; l'Allemand, D; Molinari, L; Zimmermann, M B (2009). Diet determines features of the metabolic syndrome in 6- to 14-year-old children. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research, 79(1):14-23.

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Insulin resistance (IR) and hypertension are common in overweight children, and the adipocyte-derived hormones resistin, adiponectin, and leptin may modulate IR and blood pressure (BP). Few data exist in children on dietary determinants of IR, BP, or leptin, and no data exist on dietary determinants of resistin and adiponectin. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate dietary determinants of IR, BP, resistin, adiponectin, and leptin concentrations, as well as the interrelationship among these variables, in normal and overweight children. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In 6- to 14-year-old Swiss children (n=79), nutritional intake was assessed using two 24-hour-recalls and a one-day dietary record. Body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF%), waist/hip ratio (W/H ratio), BP, glucose, insulin, resistin, adiponectin, and leptin were determined. IR was calculated using the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI). RESULTS: BMI, BF%, and W/H ratio were significant predictors of leptin and insulin, QUICKI, and systolic BP, but not resistin or adiponectin. Of the overweight and obese children, 40% were diagnosed pre-hypertensive or hypertensive. Total energy, fat, saturated fat, and protein intakes were significant predictors of fasting insulin and QUICKI, and total fat, saturated fat, and monounsaturated fat intakes were significant predictors of systolic BP, independent of BMI standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) and age. There were no associations between these dietary factors and leptin, adiponectin, or resistin. CONCLUSION: In children, dietary macronutrient composition is a predictor of IR and systolic BP, but not resistin, adiponectin, or leptin concentrations. Resistin and adiponectin concentrations are not correlated with IR or BP in this age range.

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Insulin resistance (IR) and hypertension are common in overweight children, and the adipocyte-derived hormones resistin, adiponectin, and leptin may modulate IR and blood pressure (BP). Few data exist in children on dietary determinants of IR, BP, or leptin, and no data exist on dietary determinants of resistin and adiponectin. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate dietary determinants of IR, BP, resistin, adiponectin, and leptin concentrations, as well as the interrelationship among these variables, in normal and overweight children. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In 6- to 14-year-old Swiss children (n=79), nutritional intake was assessed using two 24-hour-recalls and a one-day dietary record. Body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF%), waist/hip ratio (W/H ratio), BP, glucose, insulin, resistin, adiponectin, and leptin were determined. IR was calculated using the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI). RESULTS: BMI, BF%, and W/H ratio were significant predictors of leptin and insulin, QUICKI, and systolic BP, but not resistin or adiponectin. Of the overweight and obese children, 40% were diagnosed pre-hypertensive or hypertensive. Total energy, fat, saturated fat, and protein intakes were significant predictors of fasting insulin and QUICKI, and total fat, saturated fat, and monounsaturated fat intakes were significant predictors of systolic BP, independent of BMI standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) and age. There were no associations between these dietary factors and leptin, adiponectin, or resistin. CONCLUSION: In children, dietary macronutrient composition is a predictor of IR and systolic BP, but not resistin, adiponectin, or leptin concentrations. Resistin and adiponectin concentrations are not correlated with IR or BP in this age range.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Endocrinology and Diabetology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2009
Deposited On:01 Dec 2009 08:24
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 13:36
Publisher:Hans Huber
ISSN:0300-9831
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1024/0300-9831.79.1.14
PubMed ID:19838999
Permanent URL: https://doi.org/10.5167/uzh-24899

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