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Consequences of species loss for ecosystem functioning: meta-analyses of data from biodiversity experiments


Schmid, B; Balvanera, P; Cardinale, B J; Godbold, J; Pfisterer, A B; Raffaelli, D; Solan, M; Srivastava, D S (2009). Consequences of species loss for ecosystem functioning: meta-analyses of data from biodiversity experiments. In: Naeem, S; Bunker, D E; Hector, A; Loreau, M; Perrings, C. Biodiversity, ecosystem functioning, and human wellbeing. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 14-29.

Abstract

A large number of studies have now explicitly examined the relationship between species loss and ecosystem functions. The results from such “biodiversity experiments” have previously been collated and analyzed by two independent groups of authors. Both data sets show that reductions in species diversity generally result in reduced ecosystem functioning, even though the studies cover a wide range of ecosystems, diversity manipulations, and response variables. In this chapter, we analyze the two data sets in parallel to explain variation in the observed functional effects of biodiversity. The main conclusions are: 1) the functional effects of biodiversity differ among ecosystem types (but not between terrestrial and aquatic systems), 2) increases in species richness enhance community responses but negatively affect population responses, 3) stocks are more responsive than rates to biodiversity manipulations, 4) when diversity reductions at one trophic level affect a function at an adjacent trophic level (higher or lower), the function is often reduced 5) increased biodiversity results in increased invasion resistance. We also analyze the shape of the relationship between biodiversity and response variables, and discuss some consequences of different relationships.

Abstract

A large number of studies have now explicitly examined the relationship between species loss and ecosystem functions. The results from such “biodiversity experiments” have previously been collated and analyzed by two independent groups of authors. Both data sets show that reductions in species diversity generally result in reduced ecosystem functioning, even though the studies cover a wide range of ecosystems, diversity manipulations, and response variables. In this chapter, we analyze the two data sets in parallel to explain variation in the observed functional effects of biodiversity. The main conclusions are: 1) the functional effects of biodiversity differ among ecosystem types (but not between terrestrial and aquatic systems), 2) increases in species richness enhance community responses but negatively affect population responses, 3) stocks are more responsive than rates to biodiversity manipulations, 4) when diversity reductions at one trophic level affect a function at an adjacent trophic level (higher or lower), the function is often reduced 5) increased biodiversity results in increased invasion resistance. We also analyze the shape of the relationship between biodiversity and response variables, and discuss some consequences of different relationships.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Book Section, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
590 Animals (Zoology)
Language:English
Date:2009
Deposited On:23 Jan 2010 14:05
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 13:37
Publisher:Oxford University Press
ISBN:978-0-19-954795-1 (hbk.) 978-0-19-954796-8 (pbk.)
Additional Information:This is a pre-copy-editing, author-produced PDF of an article accepted for publication in Biodiversity, Ecosystem Functioning, and Human Wellbeing An Ecological and Economic Perspective edited by Shahid Naeem, Daniel E. Bunker, Andy Hector, Michel Loreau, and Charles Perrings. The definitive publisher-authenticated print version is available online at: http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199547951.003.0002
Official URL:http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780199547951.do
Related URLs:http://opac.nebis.ch/F/?local_base=NEBIS&con_lng=GER&func=find-b&find_code=SYS&request=005698563

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