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Scherrer, A U; Hasse, B; von Wyl, V; Yerly, S; Böni, J; Bürgisser, P; Klimkait, T; Bucher, H C; Ledergerber, B; Günthard, H F (2009). Prevalence of etravirine mutations and impact on response to treatment in routine clinical care: the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS). HIV Medicine, 10(10):647-656.

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OBJECTIVES: Etravirine (ETV) is a novel nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) with reduced cross-resistance to first-generation NNRTIs, which has been primarily studied in randomized clinical trials and not in routine clinical settings. METHODS: ETV resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) were investigated by analysing 6072 genotypic tests. The antiviral activity of ETV was predicted using different interpretation systems: International AIDS Society-USA (IAS-USA), Stanford, Rega and Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le Sida et les hépatites virales (ANRS). RESULTS: The prevalence of ETV RAMs was higher in NNRTI-exposed patients [44.9%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 41.0-48.9%] than in treatment-naïve patients (9.6%, 95% CI 8.5-10.7%). ETV RAMs in treatment-naïve patients mainly represent polymorphism, as prevalence estimates in genotypic tests for treatment-naïve patients with documented recent (<1 year) infection, who had acquired HIV before the introduction of NNRTIs, were almost identical (9.8%, 95% CI 3.3-21.4). Discontinuation of NNRTI treatment led to a marked drop in the detection of ETV RAMs, from 51.7% (95% CI 40.8-62.6%) to 34.5% (95% CI 24.6-45.4%, P=0.032). Differences in prevalence among subtypes were found for V90I and V179T (P<0.001). Estimates of restricted virological response to ETV varied among algorithms in patients with exposure to efavirenz (EFV)/nevirapine (NVP), ranging from 3.8% (95% CI 2.5-5.6%) for ANRS to 56.2% (95% CI 52.2-60.1%) for Stanford. The predicted activity of ETV decreased as the sensitivity of potential optimized background regimens decreased. The presence of major IAS-USA mutations (L100I, K101E/H/P and Y181C/I/V) reduced the treatment response at week 24. CONCLUSIONS: Most ETV RAMs in drug-naïve patients are polymorphisms rather than transmitted RAMs. Uncertainty regarding predictions of antiviral activity for ETV in NNRTI-treated patients remains high. The lowest activity was predicted for patients harbouring extensive multidrug-resistant viruses, thus limiting ETV use in those who are most in need.


11 citations in Web of Science®
13 citations in Scopus®
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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Medical Virology
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Infectious Diseases
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Deposited On:26 Jan 2010 14:26
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 13:45
Publisher DOI:10.1111/j.1468-1293.2009.00756.x
PubMed ID:19732174

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