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Tissue factor: beyond coagulation in the cardiovascular system


Breitenstein, A; Camici, G G; Tanner, F C (2009). Tissue factor: beyond coagulation in the cardiovascular system. Clinical Science, 118(3):159-172.

Abstract

TF (tissue factor) is the main trigger of the coagulation cascade; by binding Factor VIIa it activates Factor IX and Factor X, thereby resulting in fibrin formation. Various stimuli, such as cytokines, growth factors and biogenic amines, induce TF expression and activity in vascular cells. Downstream targets of these mediators include diverse signalling molecules such as MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinases), PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) and PKC (protein kinase C). In addition, TF can be detected in the bloodstream, known as circulating or blood-borne TF. Many cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia and smoking, are associated with increased expression of TF. Furthermore, in patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes, elevated levels of circulating TF are found. Apart from its role in thrombosis, TF has pro-atherogenic properties, as it is involved in neointima formation by inducing vascular smooth muscle cell migration. As inhibition of TF action appears to be an attractive target for the treatment of cardiovascular disease, therapeutic strategies are under investigation to specifically interfere with the action of TF or, alternatively, promote the effects of TFPI (TF pathway inhibitor).

TF (tissue factor) is the main trigger of the coagulation cascade; by binding Factor VIIa it activates Factor IX and Factor X, thereby resulting in fibrin formation. Various stimuli, such as cytokines, growth factors and biogenic amines, induce TF expression and activity in vascular cells. Downstream targets of these mediators include diverse signalling molecules such as MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinases), PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) and PKC (protein kinase C). In addition, TF can be detected in the bloodstream, known as circulating or blood-borne TF. Many cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia and smoking, are associated with increased expression of TF. Furthermore, in patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes, elevated levels of circulating TF are found. Apart from its role in thrombosis, TF has pro-atherogenic properties, as it is involved in neointima formation by inducing vascular smooth muscle cell migration. As inhibition of TF action appears to be an attractive target for the treatment of cardiovascular disease, therapeutic strategies are under investigation to specifically interfere with the action of TF or, alternatively, promote the effects of TFPI (TF pathway inhibitor).

Citations

21 citations in Web of Science®
18 citations in Scopus®
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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, further contribution
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic and Policlinic for Internal Medicine
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2009
Deposited On:09 Feb 2010 11:36
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 13:52
Publisher:Portland Press
ISSN:0143-5221
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:10.1042/CS20080622
PubMed ID:19845509

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