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On post-Newtonian orbits and the galactic-center stars


Preto, M; Saha, P (2009). On post-Newtonian orbits and the galactic-center stars. Astrophysical Journal, 703(2):1743-1751.

Abstract

Stars near the Galactic center reach a few percent of light speed during pericenter passage, which makes post-Newtonian effects potentially detectable. We formulate the orbit equations in Hamiltonian form such that the O(v 2/c 2) and O(v 3/c 3) post-Newtonian effects of the Kerr metric appear as a simple generalization of the Kepler problem. A related perturbative Hamiltonian applies to photon paths. We then derive a symplectic integrator with adaptive time steps, for fast and accurate numerical calculation of post-Newtonian effects. Using this integrator, we explore relativistic effects. Taking the star S2 as an example, we find that general relativity would contribute tenths of mas in astrometry and tens of ${\rm km}\;{\rm s}^{-1}$ in kinematics. (For eventual comparison with observations, redshift and time-delay contributions from the gravitational field on light paths will need to be calculated, but we do attempt these in the present paper.) The contribution from stars, gas, and dark matter in the Galactic center region is still poorly constrained observationally, but current models suggest that the resulting Newtonian perturbation on the orbits could plausibly be of the same order as the relativistic effects for stars with semimajor axes gsim0.01 pc (or 250 mas). Nevertheless, the known and distinctive time dependence of the relativistic perturbations may make it possible to disentangle and extract both effects from observations.

Abstract

Stars near the Galactic center reach a few percent of light speed during pericenter passage, which makes post-Newtonian effects potentially detectable. We formulate the orbit equations in Hamiltonian form such that the O(v 2/c 2) and O(v 3/c 3) post-Newtonian effects of the Kerr metric appear as a simple generalization of the Kepler problem. A related perturbative Hamiltonian applies to photon paths. We then derive a symplectic integrator with adaptive time steps, for fast and accurate numerical calculation of post-Newtonian effects. Using this integrator, we explore relativistic effects. Taking the star S2 as an example, we find that general relativity would contribute tenths of mas in astrometry and tens of ${\rm km}\;{\rm s}^{-1}$ in kinematics. (For eventual comparison with observations, redshift and time-delay contributions from the gravitational field on light paths will need to be calculated, but we do attempt these in the present paper.) The contribution from stars, gas, and dark matter in the Galactic center region is still poorly constrained observationally, but current models suggest that the resulting Newtonian perturbation on the orbits could plausibly be of the same order as the relativistic effects for stars with semimajor axes gsim0.01 pc (or 250 mas). Nevertheless, the known and distinctive time dependence of the relativistic perturbations may make it possible to disentangle and extract both effects from observations.

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22 citations in Web of Science®
21 citations in Scopus®
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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Institute for Computational Science
Dewey Decimal Classification:530 Physics
Language:English
Date:October 2009
Deposited On:25 Feb 2010 18:19
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 13:56
Publisher:Institute of Physics Publishing
ISSN:0004-637X
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/703/2/1743
Related URLs:http://arxiv.org/abs/0906.2226

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