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False positive rate in newborn screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)-ether extraction reveals two distinct reasons for elevated 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) values


Fingerhut, R (2009). False positive rate in newborn screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)-ether extraction reveals two distinct reasons for elevated 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) values. Steroids, 74(8):662-665.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: While the sensitivity of newborn screening for the salt wasting form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is good, the positive predictive value is poor due to the high false positive rate of the immunological assays for 17-OHP. Cross-reactivity with steroid sulfates is one of the main causes for false positive results. Several approaches have been described to improve CAH screening: adjusting cut-off levels to gestational age or birth weight, and second-tier molecular genetic analysis or second-tier liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (TMS). METHODS: 17-OHP was extracted with diethyl ether from dried blood spots in order to separate 17-OHP from polar steroids (like steroid sulfates). The dried ether extracts of calibrators, controls, and patient samples were redissolved and measured with the 17-OHP test kit (Wallac). RESULTS: 760 normal, 1049 false positive, and 232 samples of confirmed cases with CAH were analysed. Mean 17-OHP values were significantly lower after extraction: Normal samples: 17.5 nmol/L vs. 3.2 nmol/L; false positive samples: 97.0 nmol/L vs. 25.9 nmol/L; CAH: 275 nmol/L vs. 205 nmol/L. With a cut-off value of 11.9 nmol/L (mean+3 SD of the normal values), 404 of the false positives turned out to be normal. Ether extraction revealed two distinct subgroups of initially false positives rather than a continuum with normal distribution of 17-OHP values. CONCLUSION: Diethyl ether extraction provided evidence for two causes of false positive results in CAH screening. It reduced the rate of false positives by about 40% without loss of sensitivity.

BACKGROUND: While the sensitivity of newborn screening for the salt wasting form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is good, the positive predictive value is poor due to the high false positive rate of the immunological assays for 17-OHP. Cross-reactivity with steroid sulfates is one of the main causes for false positive results. Several approaches have been described to improve CAH screening: adjusting cut-off levels to gestational age or birth weight, and second-tier molecular genetic analysis or second-tier liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (TMS). METHODS: 17-OHP was extracted with diethyl ether from dried blood spots in order to separate 17-OHP from polar steroids (like steroid sulfates). The dried ether extracts of calibrators, controls, and patient samples were redissolved and measured with the 17-OHP test kit (Wallac). RESULTS: 760 normal, 1049 false positive, and 232 samples of confirmed cases with CAH were analysed. Mean 17-OHP values were significantly lower after extraction: Normal samples: 17.5 nmol/L vs. 3.2 nmol/L; false positive samples: 97.0 nmol/L vs. 25.9 nmol/L; CAH: 275 nmol/L vs. 205 nmol/L. With a cut-off value of 11.9 nmol/L (mean+3 SD of the normal values), 404 of the false positives turned out to be normal. Ether extraction revealed two distinct subgroups of initially false positives rather than a continuum with normal distribution of 17-OHP values. CONCLUSION: Diethyl ether extraction provided evidence for two causes of false positive results in CAH screening. It reduced the rate of false positives by about 40% without loss of sensitivity.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Children's Hospital Zurich > Medical Clinic
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2009
Deposited On:17 Feb 2010 09:37
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 13:56
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0039-128X
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.steroids.2009.02.008
PubMed ID:19463687
Permanent URL: https://doi.org/10.5167/uzh-30995

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