Permanent URL to this publication: http://dx.doi.org/10.5167/uzh-31221
Stojic, L; Mojas, N; Cejka, P; Di Pietro, M; Ferrari, S; Marra, G; Jiricny, J (2004). Mismatch repair-dependent G2 checkpoint induced by low doses of SN1 type methylating agents requires the ATR kinase. Genes and Development, 18(11):1331-1344.
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S(N)1-type alkylating agents represent an important class of chemotherapeutics, but the molecular mechanisms underlying their cytotoxicity are unknown. Thus, although these substances modify predominantly purine nitrogen atoms, their toxicity appears to result from the processing of O(6)-methylguanine ((6Me)G)-containing mispairs by the mismatch repair (MMR) system, because cells with defective MMR are highly resistant to killing by these agents. In an attempt to understand the role of the MMR system in the molecular transactions underlying the toxicity of alkylating agents, we studied the response of human MMR-proficient and MMR-deficient cells to low concentrations of the prototypic methylating agent N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). We now show that MNNG treatment induced a cell cycle arrest that was absolutely dependent on functional MMR. Unusually, the cells arrested only in the second G(2) phase after treatment. Downstream targets of both ATM (Ataxia telangiectasia mutated) and ATR (ATM and Rad3-related) kinases were modified, but only the ablation of ATR, or the inhibition of CHK1, attenuated the arrest. The checkpoint activation was accompanied by the formation of nuclear foci containing the signaling and repair proteins ATR, the S(*)/T(*)Q substrate, gamma-H2AX, and replication protein A (RPA). The persistence of these foci implied that they may represent sites of irreparable damage.
|Item Type:||Journal Article, refereed, original work|
|Communities & Collections:||04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Molecular Cancer Research|
07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Molecular Cancer Research
|DDC:||570 Life sciences; biology|
|Deposited On:||09 Jul 2010 12:36|
|Last Modified:||03 Dec 2013 14:53|
|Publisher:||Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press|
|Free access at:||Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.|
|Citations:||Web of Science®. Times cited: 135|
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