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Transition metal-free amination of aryl halides-A simple and reliable method for the efficient and high-yielding synthesis of N-arylated amines


Bolliger, J L; Frech, C M (2009). Transition metal-free amination of aryl halides-A simple and reliable method for the efficient and high-yielding synthesis of N-arylated amines. Tetrahedron, 65(6):1180-1187.

Abstract

A simple and reliable reaction protocol for the clean, fast, and high-yielding synthesis of various N-arylated amines derived from reactions of aryl halides with various (also sterically hindered) amines under transition metal-free reaction conditions is presented. Dioxane and KN(Si(CH3)3)2 were found to be the ideal solvent and base for this transformation. The conversion rates and yields observed are excellent and in the majority of the reactions performed significantly higher than that obtained in their catalyzed versions. Furthermore, the selective synthesis of 6-halopyridin-2-amines and asymmetric pyridine-2,6-diamines (derived from consecutive reactions of 2,6-dibromopyridine and 2,6-dichloropyridine, respectively, with different amines) is possible in almost quantitative yields (relative to 2,6-dihalopyridine) within very short reaction times. Purification of the 6-halopyridin-2-amine intermediates is not necessary, allowing the synthesis of pyridine-2,6-diamines in ‘one-pot’. However, catalysts are in many cases not required to efficiently and selectively couple aryl halides with amines, making transition metal-free versions of the Buchwald–Hartwig reaction extremely attractive for the synthesis of N-arylated amines with substrates containing substituents on the aryl halide, which either promote regioselectivity and/or do not require regioselective aminations.

A simple and reliable reaction protocol for the clean, fast, and high-yielding synthesis of various N-arylated amines derived from reactions of aryl halides with various (also sterically hindered) amines under transition metal-free reaction conditions is presented. Dioxane and KN(Si(CH3)3)2 were found to be the ideal solvent and base for this transformation. The conversion rates and yields observed are excellent and in the majority of the reactions performed significantly higher than that obtained in their catalyzed versions. Furthermore, the selective synthesis of 6-halopyridin-2-amines and asymmetric pyridine-2,6-diamines (derived from consecutive reactions of 2,6-dibromopyridine and 2,6-dichloropyridine, respectively, with different amines) is possible in almost quantitative yields (relative to 2,6-dihalopyridine) within very short reaction times. Purification of the 6-halopyridin-2-amine intermediates is not necessary, allowing the synthesis of pyridine-2,6-diamines in ‘one-pot’. However, catalysts are in many cases not required to efficiently and selectively couple aryl halides with amines, making transition metal-free versions of the Buchwald–Hartwig reaction extremely attractive for the synthesis of N-arylated amines with substrates containing substituents on the aryl halide, which either promote regioselectivity and/or do not require regioselective aminations.

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31 citations in Web of Science®
32 citations in Scopus®
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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Department of Chemistry
Dewey Decimal Classification:540 Chemistry
Language:English
Date:2009
Deposited On:03 Mar 2010 10:03
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 14:01
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0040-4020
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tet.2008.11.072

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