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Influence of benzoic acid and phytase in low-phosphorus diets on bone characteristics in growing-finishing pigs


Bühler, K; Liesegang, A; Bucher, B; Wenk, C; Broz, J (2010). Influence of benzoic acid and phytase in low-phosphorus diets on bone characteristics in growing-finishing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 88(10):3363-3371.

Abstract

In 2 simultaneous experiments (Exp. 1 and Exp. 2), the effects of benzoic acid (BA) and phytase (Phy) in low-P diets on bone metabolism, bone composition, and bone stability in growing and growing-finishing pigs were examined. Experiment 1 was conducted with 16 crossbred gilts in the BW range of 25 to 66 kg of BW, whereas in Exp. 2, 32 crossbred gilts (25 to 108 kg of BW) were used. All pigs were individually housed in pens and restrictively fed 1 of 4 diets throughout the experiment. Total P content of the wheat-soybean diets was 4 g/kg (all values on an as-fed basis). The experimental diets were 1) unsupplemented control diet; 2) control diet with 0.5% BA; 3) Phy diet with 750 Phy units (FTU) of Phy/kg and no BA; and 4) PhyBA, control diet with 750 FTU of Phy/kg and 0.5% BA. Blood samples were taken at the beginning of the experiment, wk 3 (only for pigs in Exp. 1), wk 6, and before slaughter to determine P and Ca in serum and concentrations of total alkaline phosphatase, serum crosslaps (marker for bone resorption), and osteocalcin (marker for bone formation). Ash, P, and Ca contents of bones and bone stability were examined using the left metatarsal bones and tibia of the pigs after slaughter. Benzoic acid did not influence any of the blood variables (P > 0.09). The addition of Phy increased (P < or =0.03) P concentration in serum from 2.71 +/- 0.08 to 3.03 +/- 0.07 mmol/L at wk 3 and content of serum crosslaps from 0.39 +/- 0.02 to 0.45 +/- 0.02 ng/mL at wk 6 and decreased (P < 0.05) osteocalcin at wk 6 by 160 ng/mL. No long-term effect of diets on serum mineral concentrations, alkaline phosphatase, and bone markers in serum could be detected. Benzoic acid negatively affected (P < or = 0.03) Ca content in bones and distal bone mineral density, especially in the younger pigs. In the control diet with 0.5% BA and the control diet with 750 FTU of Phy/kg and 0.5% BA, the CA content in bones and distal bone mineral density were reduced by 6 and 11%, respectively. Throughout the whole growing and finishing period, Phy increased (P < or =0.02) ash, P, and Ca contents in bones by 29.4, 4.8, and 11.6 g/kg of DM, respectively. Bone mineral density and bone mineral content were greater in diets with Phy (P < or = 0.03), as well as breaking strength of tibia (+22%) and metatarsal bones (+27%; P < 0.01). The results of this study indicate that for a healthy skeleton, BA should not be used in low-P diets without the addition of Phy.

In 2 simultaneous experiments (Exp. 1 and Exp. 2), the effects of benzoic acid (BA) and phytase (Phy) in low-P diets on bone metabolism, bone composition, and bone stability in growing and growing-finishing pigs were examined. Experiment 1 was conducted with 16 crossbred gilts in the BW range of 25 to 66 kg of BW, whereas in Exp. 2, 32 crossbred gilts (25 to 108 kg of BW) were used. All pigs were individually housed in pens and restrictively fed 1 of 4 diets throughout the experiment. Total P content of the wheat-soybean diets was 4 g/kg (all values on an as-fed basis). The experimental diets were 1) unsupplemented control diet; 2) control diet with 0.5% BA; 3) Phy diet with 750 Phy units (FTU) of Phy/kg and no BA; and 4) PhyBA, control diet with 750 FTU of Phy/kg and 0.5% BA. Blood samples were taken at the beginning of the experiment, wk 3 (only for pigs in Exp. 1), wk 6, and before slaughter to determine P and Ca in serum and concentrations of total alkaline phosphatase, serum crosslaps (marker for bone resorption), and osteocalcin (marker for bone formation). Ash, P, and Ca contents of bones and bone stability were examined using the left metatarsal bones and tibia of the pigs after slaughter. Benzoic acid did not influence any of the blood variables (P > 0.09). The addition of Phy increased (P < or =0.03) P concentration in serum from 2.71 +/- 0.08 to 3.03 +/- 0.07 mmol/L at wk 3 and content of serum crosslaps from 0.39 +/- 0.02 to 0.45 +/- 0.02 ng/mL at wk 6 and decreased (P < 0.05) osteocalcin at wk 6 by 160 ng/mL. No long-term effect of diets on serum mineral concentrations, alkaline phosphatase, and bone markers in serum could be detected. Benzoic acid negatively affected (P < or = 0.03) Ca content in bones and distal bone mineral density, especially in the younger pigs. In the control diet with 0.5% BA and the control diet with 750 FTU of Phy/kg and 0.5% BA, the CA content in bones and distal bone mineral density were reduced by 6 and 11%, respectively. Throughout the whole growing and finishing period, Phy increased (P < or =0.02) ash, P, and Ca contents in bones by 29.4, 4.8, and 11.6 g/kg of DM, respectively. Bone mineral density and bone mineral content were greater in diets with Phy (P < or = 0.03), as well as breaking strength of tibia (+22%) and metatarsal bones (+27%; P < 0.01). The results of this study indicate that for a healthy skeleton, BA should not be used in low-P diets without the addition of Phy.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Institute of Animal Nutrition
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
630 Agriculture
Language:English
Date:2010
Deposited On:11 Nov 2010 10:13
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 14:15
Publisher:American Society of Animal Science
ISSN:0021-8812
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:10.2527/jas.2009-1940
PubMed ID:20562353
Permanent URL: http://doi.org/10.5167/uzh-35961

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