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Spontanous periodic breathing is associated with sympathetic hyperreactivity and baroreceptor dysfunction in hypertension


Binggeli, C; Sudano, I; Corti, R; Spieker, L; Jenni, R; Lüscher, T F; Noll, G (2010). Spontanous periodic breathing is associated with sympathetic hyperreactivity and baroreceptor dysfunction in hypertension. Journal of Hypertension, 28(5):985-992.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Intermittent periods of hypoxemia such as during periodic breathing are associated with hypertension and increased sympathetic activity. In patients with sleep apnea syndrome, hypertension is common. Treating apnea improves hypertension and reduces sympathetic outflow. The aim of the present study was to investigate the phenomenon and mechanisms of spontaneous periodic breathing in patients with hypertension. METHOD: We examined 43 hypertensive patients with untreated hypertension without left-ventricular dysfunction, heart failure or sleep apnea syndrome. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSA), heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP) and respiration were continuously recorded at rest and during cold-pressor testing. Oxygen and a CO2-enriched gas were used to test central and peripheral chemoreceptors, respectively. Baroreceptor gain was measured using the alpha method. RESULTS: Seven out of 43 patients showed spontaneous periodic breathing while awake. No difference in MSA, HR and BP was seen between patients with and without periodic breathing at rest except the breathing pattern. However, the cold-pressor test caused a larger increase of MSA in patients with periodic breathing (203 +/- 62 vs. 62 +/- 8%, P < 0.0001 by ANOVA), as well as systolic (46 +/- 6 vs. 25 +/- 3 mmHg, P = 0.002) and diastolic BP (26 +/- 5 vs. 12 +/- 1 mmHg, P = 0.004, ANOVA). Baroreceptor gain was markedly higher in patients with periodic breathing. Chemoreceptor sensitivity was comparable. CONCLUSION: Spontaneous periodic breathing is relatively common in patients with hypertension and is associated with greatly enhanced responses to cold-pressor testing. We suggest increased baroreceptor gain and sympathetic outflow as a cause for the oscillatory respiration pattern via barorespiratory coupling.

OBJECTIVES: Intermittent periods of hypoxemia such as during periodic breathing are associated with hypertension and increased sympathetic activity. In patients with sleep apnea syndrome, hypertension is common. Treating apnea improves hypertension and reduces sympathetic outflow. The aim of the present study was to investigate the phenomenon and mechanisms of spontaneous periodic breathing in patients with hypertension. METHOD: We examined 43 hypertensive patients with untreated hypertension without left-ventricular dysfunction, heart failure or sleep apnea syndrome. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSA), heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP) and respiration were continuously recorded at rest and during cold-pressor testing. Oxygen and a CO2-enriched gas were used to test central and peripheral chemoreceptors, respectively. Baroreceptor gain was measured using the alpha method. RESULTS: Seven out of 43 patients showed spontaneous periodic breathing while awake. No difference in MSA, HR and BP was seen between patients with and without periodic breathing at rest except the breathing pattern. However, the cold-pressor test caused a larger increase of MSA in patients with periodic breathing (203 +/- 62 vs. 62 +/- 8%, P < 0.0001 by ANOVA), as well as systolic (46 +/- 6 vs. 25 +/- 3 mmHg, P = 0.002) and diastolic BP (26 +/- 5 vs. 12 +/- 1 mmHg, P = 0.004, ANOVA). Baroreceptor gain was markedly higher in patients with periodic breathing. Chemoreceptor sensitivity was comparable. CONCLUSION: Spontaneous periodic breathing is relatively common in patients with hypertension and is associated with greatly enhanced responses to cold-pressor testing. We suggest increased baroreceptor gain and sympathetic outflow as a cause for the oscillatory respiration pattern via barorespiratory coupling.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Cardiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2010
Deposited On:06 Dec 2010 11:44
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 14:16
Publisher:Lippincott Wiliams & Wilkins
ISSN:0263-6352
Additional Information:This is a non-final version of an article published in final form in:Binggeli, C; Sudano, I; Corti, R; Spieker, L; Jenni, R; Lüscher, T F; Noll, G (2010). Spontanous periodic breathing is associated with sympathetic hyperreactivity and baroreceptor dysfunction in hypertension. Journal of Hypertension, 28(5):985-992.
Publisher DOI:10.1097/HJH.0b013e3283370e3d
PubMed ID:20150822
Permanent URL: http://doi.org/10.5167/uzh-36366

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