Flammer, A J; Hermann, F; Sudano, I; Spieker, L; et al,; Lüscher, T F; Ruschitzka, F; Noll, G; Corti, R (2007). Dark chocolate improves coronary vasomotion and reduces platelet reactivity. Circulation, 116(21):2376-2382.
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BACKGROUND: Dark chocolate has potent antioxidant properties. Coronary atherosclerosis is promoted by impaired endothelial function and increased platelet activation. Traditional risk factors, high oxidative stress, and reduced antioxidant defenses play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, particularly in transplanted hearts. Thus, flavonoid-rich dark chocolate holds the potential to have a beneficial impact on graft atherosclerosis.
METHODS AND RESULTS: We assessed the effect of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate compared with cocoa-free control chocolate on coronary vascular and platelet function in 22 heart transplant recipients in a double-blind, randomized study. Coronary vasomotion was assessed with quantitative coronary angiography and cold pressor testing before and 2 hours after ingestion of 40 g of dark (70% cocoa) chocolate or control chocolate, respectively. Two hours after ingestion of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate, coronary artery diameter was increased significantly (from 2.36+/-0.51 to 2.51+/-0.59 mm, P<0.01), whereas it remained unchanged after control chocolate. Endothelium-dependent coronary vasomotion improved significantly after dark chocolate (4.5+/-11.4% versus -4.3+/-11.7% in the placebo group, P=0.01). Platelet adhesion decreased from 4.9+/-1.1% to 3.8+/-0.8% (P=0.04) in the dark chocolate group but remained unchanged in the control group.
CONCLUSIONS: Dark chocolate induces coronary vasodilation, improves coronary vascular function, and decreases platelet adhesion 2 hours after consumption. These immediate beneficial effects were paralleled by a significant reduction of serum oxidative stress and were positively correlated with changes in serum epicatechin concentration.
|Item Type:||Journal Article, refereed, original work|
|Communities & Collections:||04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Cardiology|
|DDC:||610 Medicine & health|
|Deposited On:||09 Mar 2011 10:23|
|Last Modified:||27 Nov 2013 19:31|
|Publisher:||Lippincott Wiliams & Wilkins|
|Free access at:||PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.|
|Citations:||Web of Science®. Times Cited: 94|
Scopus®. Citation Count: 114
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