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Adrenocorticotropic hormone, but not trilostane, causes severe adrenal hemorrhage, vacuolization, and apoptosis in rats


Burkhardt, W A; Guscetti, F; Boretti, F S; Todesco, A I; Aldajarov, N; Lutz, T A; Reusch, C E; Sieber-Ruckstuhl, N S (2011). Adrenocorticotropic hormone, but not trilostane, causes severe adrenal hemorrhage, vacuolization, and apoptosis in rats. Domestic Animal Endocrinology, 40(3):155-164.

Abstract

Adrenal necrosis has been reported as a complication of trilostane application in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism. One suspicion was that necrosis results from the increase of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) during trilostane therapy. The aim of the current study was to assess the effects of ACTH and trilostane on adrenal glands of rats. For experiment 1, 36 rats were divided into 6 groups. Groups 1.1 to 1.4 received ACTH in different doses (60, 40, 20, and 10 μg/d) infused subcutaneously with osmotic minipumps for 16 wk. Group 1.5 received saline, and group 1.6 received no therapy. For experiment 2, 24 rats were divided into 3 groups. Group 2.1 and 2.2 received 5 and 50 mg/kg trilostane/d orally mixed into chocolate pudding for 16 wk. Eight control rats received pudding alone. At the end of the experiments, adrenal glands were assessed for necrosis by histology and immunohistochemistry; levels of endogenous ACTH and nucleosomes were assessed in the blood. Rats treated with 60 μg ACTH/d showed more hemorrhage and vacuolization and increased numbers of apoptotic cells in the adrenal glands than rats treated with 20 or 10 μg ACTH/d, trilostane, or control rats. Rats treated with 60 μg ACTH/d had a higher amount of nucleosomes in the blood compared with rats treated with 10 μg ACTH/d, trilostane, or saline. We conclude that in healthy rats ACTH, but not trilostane, causes adrenal degeneration in a dose-dependent manner. Results of this study support the hypothesis that adrenal gland lesions seen in trilostane-treated dogs are caused by ACTH and not by trilostane.

Adrenal necrosis has been reported as a complication of trilostane application in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism. One suspicion was that necrosis results from the increase of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) during trilostane therapy. The aim of the current study was to assess the effects of ACTH and trilostane on adrenal glands of rats. For experiment 1, 36 rats were divided into 6 groups. Groups 1.1 to 1.4 received ACTH in different doses (60, 40, 20, and 10 μg/d) infused subcutaneously with osmotic minipumps for 16 wk. Group 1.5 received saline, and group 1.6 received no therapy. For experiment 2, 24 rats were divided into 3 groups. Group 2.1 and 2.2 received 5 and 50 mg/kg trilostane/d orally mixed into chocolate pudding for 16 wk. Eight control rats received pudding alone. At the end of the experiments, adrenal glands were assessed for necrosis by histology and immunohistochemistry; levels of endogenous ACTH and nucleosomes were assessed in the blood. Rats treated with 60 μg ACTH/d showed more hemorrhage and vacuolization and increased numbers of apoptotic cells in the adrenal glands than rats treated with 20 or 10 μg ACTH/d, trilostane, or control rats. Rats treated with 60 μg ACTH/d had a higher amount of nucleosomes in the blood compared with rats treated with 10 μg ACTH/d, trilostane, or saline. We conclude that in healthy rats ACTH, but not trilostane, causes adrenal degeneration in a dose-dependent manner. Results of this study support the hypothesis that adrenal gland lesions seen in trilostane-treated dogs are caused by ACTH and not by trilostane.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Center for Integrative Human Physiology
05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Institute of Veterinary Physiology
05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Institute of Veterinary Pathology
05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinary Clinic > Department of Small Animals
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2011
Deposited On:24 Jan 2011 11:59
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 14:26
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0739-7240
Publisher DOI:10.1016/j.domaniend.2010.10.002
PubMed ID:21194873
Permanent URL: http://doi.org/10.5167/uzh-39627

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