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Pseudomonas syringae virulence factor syringolin A counteracts stomatal immunity by proteasome inhibition


Schellenberg, B; Ramel, C; Dudler, R (2010). Pseudomonas syringae virulence factor syringolin A counteracts stomatal immunity by proteasome inhibition. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 23(10):1287-1293.

Abstract

The peptide derivative syringolin A, a product of a mixed nonribosomal peptide and polyketide synthetase, is secreted by certain strains of the phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. Syringolin A was shown to be a virulence factor for P. syringae pv. syringae B728a because disease symptoms on its host Phaseolus vulgaris (bean) were greatly reduced upon inoculation with syringolin A-negative mutants. Syringolin A's mode of action was recently shown to be irreversible proteasome inhibition. Here, we report that syringolin A-producing bacteria are able to open stomata and, thus, counteract stomatal innate immunity in bean and Arabidopsis. Syringolin A-negative mutants, which induce stomatal closure, can be complemented by exogenous addition of not only syringolin A but also MG132, a well-characterized and structurally unrelated proteasome inhibitor. This demonstrates that proteasome activity is crucial for guard cell function. In Arabidopsis, stomatal immunity was salicylic acid (SA)-dependent and required NPR1, a key regulator of the SA-dependent defense pathway whose proteasome-dependent turnover has been reported to be essential for its function. Thus, elimination of NPR1 turnover through proteasome inhibition by syringolin A is an attractive hypothesis to explain the observed inhibition of stomatal immunity by syringolin A.

The peptide derivative syringolin A, a product of a mixed nonribosomal peptide and polyketide synthetase, is secreted by certain strains of the phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. Syringolin A was shown to be a virulence factor for P. syringae pv. syringae B728a because disease symptoms on its host Phaseolus vulgaris (bean) were greatly reduced upon inoculation with syringolin A-negative mutants. Syringolin A's mode of action was recently shown to be irreversible proteasome inhibition. Here, we report that syringolin A-producing bacteria are able to open stomata and, thus, counteract stomatal innate immunity in bean and Arabidopsis. Syringolin A-negative mutants, which induce stomatal closure, can be complemented by exogenous addition of not only syringolin A but also MG132, a well-characterized and structurally unrelated proteasome inhibitor. This demonstrates that proteasome activity is crucial for guard cell function. In Arabidopsis, stomatal immunity was salicylic acid (SA)-dependent and required NPR1, a key regulator of the SA-dependent defense pathway whose proteasome-dependent turnover has been reported to be essential for its function. Thus, elimination of NPR1 turnover through proteasome inhibition by syringolin A is an attractive hypothesis to explain the observed inhibition of stomatal immunity by syringolin A.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Department of Plant and Microbial Biology
Dewey Decimal Classification:580 Plants (Botany)
Language:English
Date:2010
Deposited On:30 Jan 2011 12:02
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 14:27
Publisher:American Phytopathological Society
ISSN:0894-0282
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1094/MPMI-04-10-0094
PubMed ID:20831408
Permanent URL: https://doi.org/10.5167/uzh-39823

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