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ISCO for Groundwater Remediation: Analysis of Field Applications and Performance


Krembs, F J; Siegrist, R L; Crimi, M L; Furrer, R (2010). ISCO for Groundwater Remediation: Analysis of Field Applications and Performance. Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation, 30(4):42-53.

Abstract

A critical analysis of in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) projects was performed to characterize situations in which ISCO is being implemented, how design and operating parameters are typically employed, and to determine the performance results being achieved. This research involved design of a database, acquisition and review of ISCO project information, population of the database, and analyses of the database using statistical methods. Based on 242 ISCO projects included in the database, ISCO has been used to treat a variety of contaminants; however, chlorinated solvents are by far the most common. ISCO has been implemented at sites with varied subsurface conditions with vertical injection wells and direct push probes being the most common delivery methods. ISCO has met and maintained concentrations below maximum contaminant levels (MCLs), although not at any sites where dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) were presumed to be present. Alternative cleanup levels and mass reduction goals have also been attempted, and these less stringent goals are met with greater frequency than MCLs. The use of pilot testing is beneficial in heterogeneous geologic media, but not so in homogeneous media. ISCO projects cost USD 220,000 on average, and cost on average USD 94/yd3 of target treatment zone. ISCO costs vary widely based on the size of the treatment zone, the presence of DNAPL, and the oxidant delivery method. No case studies were encountered in which ISCO resulted in permanent reductions to microbial populations or sustained increases in metal concentrations in groundwater at the ISCO-treated site.

A critical analysis of in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) projects was performed to characterize situations in which ISCO is being implemented, how design and operating parameters are typically employed, and to determine the performance results being achieved. This research involved design of a database, acquisition and review of ISCO project information, population of the database, and analyses of the database using statistical methods. Based on 242 ISCO projects included in the database, ISCO has been used to treat a variety of contaminants; however, chlorinated solvents are by far the most common. ISCO has been implemented at sites with varied subsurface conditions with vertical injection wells and direct push probes being the most common delivery methods. ISCO has met and maintained concentrations below maximum contaminant levels (MCLs), although not at any sites where dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) were presumed to be present. Alternative cleanup levels and mass reduction goals have also been attempted, and these less stringent goals are met with greater frequency than MCLs. The use of pilot testing is beneficial in heterogeneous geologic media, but not so in homogeneous media. ISCO projects cost USD 220,000 on average, and cost on average USD 94/yd3 of target treatment zone. ISCO costs vary widely based on the size of the treatment zone, the presence of DNAPL, and the oxidant delivery method. No case studies were encountered in which ISCO resulted in permanent reductions to microbial populations or sustained increases in metal concentrations in groundwater at the ISCO-treated site.

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27 citations in Scopus®
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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Mathematics
Dewey Decimal Classification:510 Mathematics
Language:English
Date:4 October 2010
Deposited On:23 Dec 2010 13:44
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 14:27
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN:1069-3629
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6592.2010.01312.x
Permanent URL: https://doi.org/10.5167/uzh-39900

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