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Lodwick, R; Costagliola, D; Reiss, P; Torti, C; Teira, R; Dorrucci, M; Ledergerber, B; Mocroft, A; Podzamczer, D; Cozzi-Lepri, A; Obel, N; Masquelier, B; Staszewski, S; García, F; De Wit, S; Castagna, A; Antinori, A; Judd, A; Ghosn, J; Touloumi, G; Mussini, C; Duval, X; Ramos, J; Meyer, L; Warsawski, J; Thorne, C; Masip, J; Pérez-Hoyos, S; Pillay, D; van Sighem, A; Lo Caputo, S; Günthard, H; Paredes, R; De Luca, A; Paraskevis, D; Fabre-Colin, C; Kjaer, J; Chêne, G; Lundgren, J D; Phillips, A N (2010). Triple-class virologic failure in HIV-infected patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy for up to 10 years. Archives of Internal Medicine, 170(5):410-419.

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Life expectancy of people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is now estimated to approach that of the general population in some successfully treated subgroups. However, to attain these life expectancies, viral suppression must be maintained for decades.

METHODS: We studied the rate of triple-class virologic failure (TCVF) in patients within the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe (COHERE) who started antiretroviral therapy (ART) that included a nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) or a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r) from 1998 onwards. We also focused on TCVF in patients who started a PI/r-containing regimen after a first-line NNRTI-containing regimen failed.

RESULTS: Of 45 937 patients followed up for a median (interquartile range) of 3.0 (1.5-5.0) years, 980 developed TCVF (2.1%). By 5 and 9 years after starting ART, an estimated 3.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.1%-3.6%) and 8.6% (95% CI, 7.5%-9.8%) of patients, respectively, had developed TCVF. The incidence of TCVF rose during the first 3 to 4 years on ART but plateaued thereafter. There was no significant difference in the risk of TCVF according to whether the initial regimen was NNRTI or PI/r based (P = .11). By 5 years after starting a PI/r regimen as second-line therapy, 46% of patients had developed TCVF.

CONCLUSIONS: The rate of virologic failure of the 3 original drug classes is low, but not negligible, and does not appear to diminish over time from starting ART. If this trend continues, many patients are likely to need newer drugs to maintain viral suppression. The rate of TCVF from the start of a PI/r regimen after NNRTI failure provides a comparator for studies of response to second-line regimens in resource-limited settings.

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Infectious Diseases
DDC:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2010
Deposited On:16 Jan 2011 11:26
Last Modified:23 Nov 2012 14:21
Publisher:American Medical Association
ISSN:0003-9926
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:10.1001/archinternmed.2009.472
PubMed ID:20212176
Citations:Google Scholar™
Scopus®. Citation Count: 25

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