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gamma-Secretase dependent production of intracellular domains is reduced in adult compared to embryonic rat brain membranes


Frånberg, J; Karlström, H; Winblad, B; Tjernberg, L O; Frykman, S (2010). gamma-Secretase dependent production of intracellular domains is reduced in adult compared to embryonic rat brain membranes. PLoS ONE, 5(3):e9772.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: gamma-Secretase is an intramembrane aspartyl protease whose cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) generates the amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) and the APP intracellular domain. Abeta is widely believed to have a causative role in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis, and therefore modulation of gamma-secretase activity has become a therapeutic goal. Besides APP, more than 50 substrates of gamma-secretase with different cellular functions during embryogenesis as well as adulthood have been revealed. Prior to gamma-secretase cleavage, substrates are ectodomain shedded, producing membrane bound C-terminal fragments (CTFs).

PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we investigated gamma-secretase cleavage of five substrates; APP, Notch1, N-cadherin, ephrinB and p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75-NTR) in membranes isolated from embryonic, young or old adult rat brain by analyzing the release of the corresponding intracellular domains (ICDs) or Abeta40 by western blot analysis and ELISA respectively. The highest levels of all ICDs and Abeta were produced by embryonic membranes. In adult rat brain only cleavage of APP and Notch1 could be detected and the Abeta40 and ICD production from these substrates was similar in young and old adult rat brain. The CTF levels of Notch1, N-cadherin, ephrinB and p75-NTR were also clearly decreased in the adult brain compared to embryonic brain, whereas the APP CTF levels were only slightly decreased.

CONCLUSIONS: In summary our data suggests that gamma-secretase dependent ICD production is down-regulated in the adult brain compared to embryonic brain. In addition, the present approach may be useful for evaluating the specificity of gamma-secretase inhibitors.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: gamma-Secretase is an intramembrane aspartyl protease whose cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) generates the amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) and the APP intracellular domain. Abeta is widely believed to have a causative role in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis, and therefore modulation of gamma-secretase activity has become a therapeutic goal. Besides APP, more than 50 substrates of gamma-secretase with different cellular functions during embryogenesis as well as adulthood have been revealed. Prior to gamma-secretase cleavage, substrates are ectodomain shedded, producing membrane bound C-terminal fragments (CTFs).

PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we investigated gamma-secretase cleavage of five substrates; APP, Notch1, N-cadherin, ephrinB and p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75-NTR) in membranes isolated from embryonic, young or old adult rat brain by analyzing the release of the corresponding intracellular domains (ICDs) or Abeta40 by western blot analysis and ELISA respectively. The highest levels of all ICDs and Abeta were produced by embryonic membranes. In adult rat brain only cleavage of APP and Notch1 could be detected and the Abeta40 and ICD production from these substrates was similar in young and old adult rat brain. The CTF levels of Notch1, N-cadherin, ephrinB and p75-NTR were also clearly decreased in the adult brain compared to embryonic brain, whereas the APP CTF levels were only slightly decreased.

CONCLUSIONS: In summary our data suggests that gamma-secretase dependent ICD production is down-regulated in the adult brain compared to embryonic brain. In addition, the present approach may be useful for evaluating the specificity of gamma-secretase inhibitors.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute for Regenerative Medicine (IREM)
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2010
Deposited On:17 Jan 2011 09:32
Last Modified:16 Aug 2016 10:13
Publisher:Public Library of Science (PLoS)
ISSN:1932-6203
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009772
PubMed ID:20333303

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